Types of Acne and Treatment Options | Dermatology


What is acne?

Acne is a skin condition that occurs when the scalp is clogged with oil and dead skin cells. It can lead to pimples, blackheads, or whiteheads. Acne can have serious psychological consequences, especially for teenagers.

There are effective acne treatments, but acne persists. Pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one starts to fade, others seem to cut themselves off.

Types of acne

Non-inflammatory acne

1. Blackheads

Pimples are small bumps that appear on the skin due to clogged hair follicles. These bumps are called pimples because the surface appears dark or black. Blackheads are a mild type of acne that usually occurs on the face, but also on the following parts of the body:

  • Back
  • Chest
  • Neck
  • Hands

Blackheads symptoms

Due to the dark colour, pimples are easy to spot on the skin. Although they are not as painful as pimples, they do grow a bit. Acne mainly affects people in the hair follicles due to the overgrowth of bacteria.

Blackheads causes

Certain factors increase the likelihood of developing blackheads:

  • Age and hormonal changes are an important factor. As with other acne symptoms, blackheads are more common in adolescence, when changes in hormone levels trigger an increase in sebum production. However, they can appear at any age.
  • Androgen, the male sex hormone, stimulates increased sebum secretion and increased renewal of skin cells around puberty. Both boys and girls experience high levels of androgens during adolescence.
  • After puberty, hormonal changes associated with the use of birth control pills, pregnancy, and menstruation can also cause pimples in women.
  • Excessive production of skin cells by the body causes blackheads.

Other factors:

  • Prevent or clog pores through cosmetics and clothing.
  • Intense sweat
  • Shaving and other activities that open hair follicles.
  • High humidity and fat in instantaneous weather conditions.
  • Some health conditions, such as stress, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • Medications that promote the rapid renewal of skin cells.
  • Use of certain steroid-based medications such as corticosteroids
  • Contrary to popular belief, poor hygiene is not a direct cause of blackheads. Excessive scrubbing to try and remove them can make them worse.

Risk factors of blackheads

People of all ages can get acne, but it is most common in teens.

  • Hormonal changes: These changes are common during puberty or pregnancy.
  • Family history: Genetics plays an important role in warts. If both parents have acne, they are more likely to develop it.
  • Greasy or greasy substances: You can develop acne where your skin is in contact with oily or oily lotions and creams.
  • Friction or pressure on your skin: It is caused by elements such as telephones, cell phones, helmets, tight collars, and backpacks.


People with lighter skin are more likely to experience these acne problems than those with lighter skin:

  • Places: Pitted skin (acne scars) and thick scars (keloids) are chronic after the pimples have healed.
  • Changes in the skin Once the pimples are gone, the affected skin may be darker (hyperpigmented) or lighter (hypopigmented) than before.

Blackheads prevention

To avoid blackheads, try tips like:

  • When you wake up, wash your face before bed and after sweating.
  • Using your fingertips, gently apply non-abrasive cleansers to your skin. Rubbing with cloths or sponges can irritate the skin.
  • Use alcohol-free skin products.
  • Avoid the sun, as some medicated acne lotions make your skin more sensitive to UV rays.
  • Shampoo oily hair regularly.
  • Limit the number of times you touch your face.
  • Change pillowcases frequently.
  • Also, some studies suggest that certain foods can aggravate acne. Some of the suspects were skim milk, chocolate, and carbohydrate-rich foods like bread and chips.

Blackheads treatment

  • Rinse with salicylic acid.
  • Gently exfoliates with AHA and BHA
  • Remove the skin brush
  • Try topical retinoids
  • Using a clay mask
  • Wear a charcoal mask
  • Consider a chemical peel
  • Make sure to use non-co-pathogens.
  • Don’t sleep in your makeup
  • Avoid drilling and other home extraction methods
  • Don’t waste your time with benzoyl peroxide
  • Consult your dermatologist for professional removal.

2. Whiteheads

When dead skin cells, sebum (oil), and dirt clog the pores it leads to whiteheads. Whiteheads are closed within the pore whereas blackheads are pushed out of the pore. This can make treatment a bit more challenging.

Whiteheads causes

Several factors contribute to the prevalence of whiteheads, including cleaning routines, lifestyle habits, and genetics.

One of the causes of whiteheads is hormonal changes and fluctuations in hormone levels that trigger acne breakouts. Certain events and stages of life increase the production of sebum in the pores; As your skin produces more oil, they are more likely to clog and create whiteheads.

Additional causes of Whitehead:

  • Adolescence
  • Hereditary factors
  • Stress
  • Hormonal life changes
  • Life habits

The whiteheads are evidence that your body is trying to rid itself of the infection. A small lump in the infected hole indicates that your skin is trying to kill any bacteria.

Although whiteheads seem to appear overnight, these closed comedones can take up to two months to form.


The way you handle whiteheads affects the health of your skin. If you constantly prick the pimple, it can become irritating and cause scarring. Once the scar has formed, when it can be improved, it is a relatively permanent mark on your skin.

Whiteheads treatment

Natural remedies

  • Vitamin A cream
  • Tea tree oil
  • Aloe vera
  • Witch hazel

Over-the-counter products

  • Benzoyl peroxide
  • Salicylic acid
  • Retinoid creams
  • Gentle exfoliants

Inflammatory acne

1. Papules

The papule is an enlarged area of skin tissue that is less than 1 cm in diameter. A papule can have distinct or clear boundaries. It comes in a variety of shapes, colours, and sizes. It is not a diagnosis or a disease.

Papules are often called skin lesions, which are essentially changes in the colour or texture of the skin. Sometimes the papules clump together can form rashes.

Papules causes

Like most forms of acne, papules and blisters are caused by the growth of oil and bacteria trapped within the pore by dead skin cells. Papules occur when the hair follicle becomes inflamed due to a blockage. When this happens, the body’s immune system sends out white blood cells to fight the infection. White blood cells die and accumulate within the papule and pus develops.

Papules treatments

Your doctor may recommend starting over-the-counter acne treatments, such as benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid. If after a few weeks these are not effective, your doctor may refer you to a dermatologist, who can prescribe stronger medications.

  • For inflammatory acne, your dermatologist may prescribe topical dropzone (Axon). Other topical recommendations may include:
  • Retinoid medications (and similar to retinoids). Retinoids include adapalene (Differin), tretinoin (Retin-A), and tazarotene (Tazorac).
  • Antibiotics Topical antibiotics kill excess bacteria on the skin and reduce redness. They are commonly used with erythromycin with benzoyl peroxide (benjamin) or with other treatments such as clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide (benzocaine). Sometimes retinoid antibiotics are used.
  • Depending on the severity of your acne, your dermatologist may recommend oral medications.
  • Antibiotics Examples of macrolides such as azithromycin or erythromycin or tetracycline such as doxycycline or minocycline.
  • Birth control pills (for women). Estrogen and progestin combination pills┬ácan help with acne, such as ortho tricycle or Yaz.
  • Anti-androgen agents (for women). For example, spironolactone (Aldactone) can inhibit the effect of androgen hormones on the sebaceous glands.

2. Pustules

Blisters are small bumps on the skin that contain fluid or pus. They usually appear as white bumps around the red skin. These tumours look like pimples, but they grow much larger.

The rashes can develop anywhere on the body but usually occur on the back, chest, and face. They are found in groups in the same area of the body.

Pustules causes

Blisters can occur when your skin becomes inflamed as a result of an allergic reaction to food, environmental allergens, or toxic insect bites.

However, the most common cause of blisters is acne. Acne mainly develops when the pores of the skin become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. This blockage causes the skin patches to swell and cause a rash.

The rashes are usually pus due to an infection of the perforated cavity. Acne can have serious psychological consequences, especially for teenagers. When this happens, the rash turns into a cyst. This condition is called cystic acne.

Pustules treatment

Small blisters can heal on their own over time without any intervention, but treatments and home remedies can speed up the process.

People should try to keep the skin around the blisters clean and free of oil. They can do this by washing with warm water and mild soap twice a day.

Over-the-counter (OTC) creams, ointments, and soaps can help, especially if they include any of the following:

  • Salicylic acid
  • Sulfur
  • Peroxide

However, people should not use these products near the genitals. It is important to choose an explosion or to avoid making it explode. Doing so can cause more damage and prolong the healing process.

If home remedies don’t work, people can talk to their doctor about prescribed treatments. These strong medications often remove blisters.

Acne products dry out the skin. People with sensitive skin should look for products that are less irritating and can hydrate the skin. If the skin is inflamed, a person should refrain from using the product.

3. Nodules

The nodule is an abnormal growth of tissue. Nodules develop under the skin. They can also develop in deep tissues of the skin or internal organs.

Dermatologists use nodules as a general term to describe a lump that is at least 1 cm in size on the skin. This is not a definitive diagnosis.

Nodules causes

Similar to mild acne breakouts, nodular pimples are caused by a variety of factors:

  • Overactive sebaceous (or fat) glands, abnormal formation of dead cells in the pores, and bacterial growth that causes acne.
  • Another major trigger for all types of acne is nodular acne and androgen hormones. As androgens increase, so does the oil in the skin. Androgens can also alter the chemical makeup of your skin’s oil, making it thicker (which can clog pores) and a better environment for acne-causing bacteria to take up residence.
  • However, some people are unsure why they develop severe forms of acne, such as nodular acne, while others develop small pimples. However, there appears to be a genetic component. 3 If your parents or siblings have nodular pimples, you are more likely to develop them too.
  • Although anyone can develop nodular pimples, it is most common in the young. Teenage boys and young adult men often develop acne nodules on both the face and the body.
  • Adult women often struggle with nodular breakouts. Its breakouts are centred on the jaw, chin, and neck and are usually premature or worse.

Nodules treatment

In addition to systemic and topical treatments, your dermatologist may offer other methods of treating nodular acne. Some of these methods are:

  • Lasers and photodynamic treatments
  • Prescription chemical peels
  • Blackhead and whitehead removal
  • Incision and drainage to clear the nodule
  • Corticosteroid injections directly into the affected area to reduce the size of the nodule and reduce pain.
  • Neither of these policies should be attempted on your own. Talk to your dermatologist about the side effects and benefits of these methods.

4. Cysts

A dermoid cyst is a sac-like growth that occurs at birth. It may contain structures such as hair, fluid, teeth, or skin glands that appear on or on the skin.

Cysts causes

Common cysts can occur anywhere in the body. They are often the result of an infection, clogged oil glands, or perforations.

Some other common causes of cysts are:

  • Tumours
  • Genetic conditions
  • Defect in the developing fetus organ.
  • Cell defect
  • Chronic inflammatory conditions
  • Vascular obstruction in the body causes the formation of fluids.
  • A parasite
  • An injury that breaks a vessel

In most cases, cysts do not rupture, become infected, or cause pain unless they are inflamed.

Cysts treatment

Cyst treatment depends on the root cause of the cyst and whether the cyst is causing the patient or not. As mentioned above, most cysts are benign and do not require treatment. However, large cysts can cause symptoms due to compression of normal tissue and blockage of vessels.

These cysts can be treated by injecting the contents of the cyst through a needle or catheter so that the cyst collapses. Other cysts require surgical removal (some cysts, such as ovarian cysts, can be removed by laparoscopic surgery), especially if there is any suspicion of malignancy.

Symptomatic cysts are usually treated by removing and/or surgically removing them; Medical treatment is generally limited to reducing the symptoms associated with its underlying cause. People should discuss with their doctors the best methods to use to get rid of their cysts.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *