Causes and Treatments of Seborrheic keratosis | Dermatology

Seborrheic keratosis

What is seborrheic keratosis?

Seborrheic keratosis is a common non-cancerous skin growth. People tend to have more of them as they get older. Seborrheic keratoses are usually brown, black, or light brown. The growths appear waxy, scaly, and slightly raised. They generally show up on the head, neck, chest, or back.

Seborrheic keratosis is harmless and not contagious. They do not need treatment, but you may decide to remove them if they are irritated by the clothes or do not like their appearance.

What are the symptoms of seborrheic keratoses?

Seborrheic keratoses may look like moles or skin diseases. They look waxy and appear to be stuck to the skin. Some may look like a lump of brown wax. Others are like barnacles. They can range from small to over an inch. It is not painful, but it may itch or irritate. There are four dimensions to consider when describing seborrheic keratoses:

  • Location: The most common growths are found on the scalp, shoulder, chest, abdomen, or back. They are never found on the soles of the feet or the palms of the hands.
  • Texture: The lesions usually begin as small, rough bumps, then gradually thicken and a warty surface appears. It can sometimes appear waxy and “stuck.”
  • Shape: It is usually round or oval.
  • Colour: Most of them are brown, but they can be yellow, black, or white.

The lesions are rarely painful, but they can be bothersome, depending on their location. It is important not to scratch or scratch it as this may lead to bleeding, swelling, and possible infection.

What causes seborrhoeic keratoses?

The specific reason for seborrheic keratosis isn’t known. The name is misleading, because it is not limited to seborrheic distribution (scalp, mid-face, chest, upper back) as in seborrheic dermatitis, nor is it formed by sebaceous glands, as is the case with seborrheic hyperplasia, nor is it associated with fat – it is oily. Seborrheic keratosis is of a degenerative nature. Over time, the number of seborrheic keratoses increases. Some people inherit a tendency to develop too many of them.

The researchers note:

  • A seborrheic eruption can follow sunburn or dermatitis
  • The friction of the skin may be the cause of their appearance in body folds
  • A viral cause (such as human papillomavirus) appears unlikely
  • Stable and stable mutations or activation of the FRFR3, PIK3CA, RAS, AKT1, and EGFR genes have been found in seborrheic keratoses.
  • Seborrheic keratosis can arise from solar lentigo
  • FRFR3 mutations also arise in solar designs. These mutations are associated with increased age and location on the head and neck, indicating the role of UV rays in these lesions.
  • Seborrheic keratoses do not harbor tumor suppressor gene mutations
  • Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (used to treat cancer) often increase warty (warty) keratoses.

Who is at risk of developing seborrheic keratosis?

Include risk factors for this condition:

  • Older age: The condition most often develops in middle-aged people. The risk increases with age.
  • Family members with seborrheic keratosis: This skin condition often runs in families. The risks increase with the number of relatives infected.
  • Frequent sun exposure: There is some evidence that skin exposure to the sun is more likely to develop seborrheic keratosis. However, tumors also appear on the skin that is usually covered when people go outside.

How do dermatologists treat seborrheic keratoses?

Because seborrheic keratosis is harmless, it often does not need treatment. A dermatologist may remove the seborrheic keratosis when doing this:

  • It looks like melanoma
  • Attaches to clothing or jewellery
  • He gets angry easily
  • It looks ugly to the patient

If the growth looks like melanoma, your dermatologist will likely shave or scrape the growth with a blade. This will permit an uncommonly prepared specialist to search for skin malignancy cells under a magnifying instrument.

Other treatments include seborrheic keratoses:

  • Cryotherapy: A dermatologist applies liquid nitrogen, an extremely cold liquid, to the growths with a cotton swab or spray gun. This destroys growth. Seborrheic keratosis tends to recede within days. Sometimes a blister forms under the seborrheic keratosis and dries up in a crust-like crust. The crust will fall off.
  • Electrosurgery and curettage: Electrosurgery (electrocautery) involves numbing the growth with an anaesthetic and using an electric current to destroy the growth. A surgical scooper tool, a scraper, is used to scrape the treated growth. This is the abrasion. The patient does not need stitches. There may be a small amount of bleeding. Sometimes a patient just needs electrical surgery or just scraping.


After seborrheic keratoses are removed, the skin may be lighter than the surrounding skin. This usually fades with time. Sometimes it is permanent. Most of the removed seborrheic keratoses do not return. But a new one may happen elsewhere.


Seborrheic keratosis is not a malignant neoplasm. However:

  • Skin cancers are sometimes difficult to distinguish apart from seborrheic keratoses.
  • Skin cancer may arise by chance inside or colliding with seborrheic keratosis.

In very rare cases, volcanic seborrheic keratosis may indicate primary internal metastasis, most often adenocarcinoma. Paraneoplastic syndrome is known as the Leser-Trélat sign. Non-cancerous volcanic seborrheic keratosis is sometimes described as a false marker of Leser-Trélat.

Irritant seborrheic keratosis and eruption may also arise as an adverse reaction to one of the medicines, such as adalimumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, 5-fluorouracil, and several chemotherapy drugs. Irritated seborrheic keratosis is an inflamed, red, scaly lesion. It may lead to dermatitis, periarticular eczema. Dermatitis may also lead to new seborrheic keratosis.

How is seborrheic keratosis diagnosed?

A health care provider can often diagnose a seborrheic keratosis based on its appearance. In some cases, a biopsy may be required. If you have a skin growth that concerns you, it is always best to see your health care provider. Your medical services supplier will get some information about your clinical history and indications. Your medical care supplier will likewise give you a physical test and intently analyze the development.

It is important for your healthcare provider to make sure that any growths are not precancerous or precancerous. Some signs that may concern your healthcare provider may need to be checked if the cancer is growing:

  • They appear soft on the skin, rather than prominent and well-defined
  • It has blurred boundaries
  • It’s not the same shape on both sides (asymmetry)
  • There are dilated blood vessels around the growth
  • There is an open sore to grow
  • It grew from a previous mole

If your healthcare provider wants to check for cancer, you will undergo a skin biopsy. Your health care provider will sample the growth or the entire growth. Then it is examined under a microscope to detect cancer.

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