What is ovarian cancer?
Ovarian cancer is an abnormal cell in the ovary that multiplies under control and forms a tumor. If left untreated, the tumor can spread to other parts of the body. This is called metastatic ovarian cancer. The female reproductive system consists of two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries each about the size of an almond produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
It is often not found until it has spread to the inside of the pelvis and abdomen. In this last stage, ovarian cancer is very difficult to treat. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovaries, is more likely to be successfully treated. It often has warning signs, but the initial symptoms are vague and easy to eliminate. Twenty per cent are found at an early stage.
The ovaries are small, with almond-shaped organs on either side of the uterus. The eggs are produced in the ovaries. It occurs in different parts of the ovary. It begins in the germ, stromal, or epithelial cells of the ovary. Microbial cells are cells that develop into eggs. Stromal cells make up the material of the ovary. Epithelial cells are the outer layer of the ovary.
Types of ovarian cancer
This type often has no symptoms in the early stages. Most people are not diagnosed until they are in the advanced stages of the disease.
This type of ovarian cancer is hereditary and is more common in women with a family history of:
- Ovarian cancer and breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer without breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer and colon cancer
Women with two or more first-degree relatives, such as parents, siblings, or children, have the highest risk of developing cancer. However, having a first-degree relative with ovarian cancer also increases your risk.
Factors associated with longer survival
There are several factors associated with longer survival in women with epithelial ovarian carcinoma:
- Adopting the diagnosis in the previous step
- Early age
- Highly differentiated tumor or cancer cells are similar to healthy cells
- Contains a small tumor at the time of removal
- Cancer caused by the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes
Germ cell ovarian cancer
“Germ cell ovarian cancer” is the name given to a wide variety of cancers. These cancers develop from the cells that make up eggs. These usually occur in young women and adolescents and are more common in women in their 20s.
These cancers are large and grow rapidly. Sometimes tumors produce human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Germ cell cancers can be treated very often. Surgery is the first line of treatment. Chemotherapy is highly recommended after surgery.
Stromal cell cancer of the ovary
Stromal cell cancers develop from ovarian cells. Some of these cells also produce ovarian hormones, such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.
Stromal cell cancer of the ovaries is very rare and grows slowly. They secrete estrogen and testosterone. Estrogen mainly causes cervical bleeding. These characteristics are very remarkable. Stromal cell cancer can be diagnosed at an early stage. People with stromal cell cancer tend to have a better prognosis.
Causes of Ovarian cancer
We still don’t know what the causes are. As discussed in Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors, we know some of the factors that make a woman more prone to having epithelial ovarian cancer. Very little is known about the risk factors for ovarian stromal and germ cell tumors.
The most recent and important finding of the cause is that it begins in the cells at the end of the fallopian tubes and not in the ovary itself. This new information could open up more research studies for the prevention and testing of this type of cancer.
Some of them come from looking at things that change your risk for ovarian cancer. For example, taking birth control and pregnancy pills can lower the risk. These two factors determine how often the ovary releases an egg (ovulation), and some researchers believe there may be some link between ovulation and the risk of ovarian cancer.
Additionally, we know that tubal ligation and hysterectomy reduce the risk. One theory to explain this is that some carcinogens enter the body through the vagina and reach the ovaries through the uterus and fallopian tubes. This explains how the removal of the uterus or blockage of the fallopian tubes affects the risk of ovarian cancer. Another theory is that male hormones (androgens) cause ovarian cancer.
Symptoms & Signs of Ovarian cancer
The cancerous ovary in the study early symptoms rarely cause. In the case of an oasis or an outpost, you can search for the ‘few’ specific with a menu that connects to the common ‘benign’.
Cancer signs and symptoms can be found in:
- Bloating or distant abdominal
- You mean, like, crackers and the like, huh?
- Weight loss
- Discomfort in the pelvic area.
- Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation.
- A frequent urge to urinate
Any risk factor that increases the chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different types of cancer have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can change. Others cannot change a person’s age or family history.
But being a risk factor or being too high doesn’t mean you get the disease. And some people with the disease may not have any risk factors. Researchers have discovered that there are several risk factors for a woman’s increased risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer. These risk factors do not apply to other less common ovarian cancers, such as germ cell tumors and stromal tumors.
Most women have more than one risk factor. But the most common factors increase your risk somewhat, so they only partly explain the frequency of the disease. So far, what is known about risk factors for preventing most cases of ovarian cancer has not been translated into practical ways.
There are many ways to develop the most common type of ovarian cancer, epithelial ovarian cancer. Very little is known about the germ cells of the ovaries and the ways in which stromal tumors develop, so this information does not apply to that type. I
It is important to realize that some of these strategies will reduce your risk only a little, while others will reduce it very little. Some strategies are easy to follow, while others require surgery. If you are concerned about your risk for ovarian cancer, speak with your healthcare professional. They can help you consider these ideas when applying them to your own situation.
Diagnosis of Ovarian cancer
Tests and procedures used to diagnose ovarian cancer:
- Pelvic exam: During a pelvic exam, your doctor inserts a gloved finger into your vagina and immediately presses her hand on your abdomen to feel your pelvic organs (palpate). The doctor will also visually examine your external genitalia, vagina, and uterus.
- Imaging tests: Tests such as ultrasound or CT scan of your abdomen and pelvis can help determine the size, shape, and structure of your ovaries.
- Blood test: Blood tests may include organ function tests that help determine your overall health.
Your doctor can also test your blood for signs of a tumor that indicates ovarian cancer. For example, a cancer antigen (CA) 125 test can detect a protein that is frequently found on the surface of these cancer cells. These tests may not tell your doctor if you have cancer, but they can provide evidence about your diagnosis and prognosis.
- Surgery: Sometimes your doctor may not be sure of your diagnosis until you have surgery to remove your ovaries and have a test for signs of cancer.
Once you are diagnosed with this cancer, your doctor will use the information from your tests and procedures to stage cancer. The stages of this cancer are indicated by the Roman numerals I through IV, which indicates that the lowest stage of cancer is confined to the ovaries.
Ovarian cancer treatment
Treatment generally involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.
- Surgery: In surgery, doctors remove cancerous tissue.
- Chemotherapy: the use of special drugs to shrink or kill cancer. Medications can be pills you take or medications that are given into your veins, or sometimes both.
Different doctors on your medical team may offer different treatments. Gynecologic oncologists are physicians trained to treat cancers of the female reproductive system. They perform surgery and give chemotherapy.
Surgeons are doctors who perform operations
Medical oncologists are doctors who treat cancer with drugs (chemotherapy).