Skin Problems in Children | Dermatology

Skin problems in children

What are the skin problems in children?

Skin problems in children are very common to find a lump, rash, red mark, or welt on a child’s body. Information on general skin results to help better identify patients. As always, if you have any concerns, be sure to consult a pediatrician if any skin problems in children are identified. A dermatologist will help you to cure skin problems in children.

List of skin problems in children


Ringworm (tinea corporis) is a rash caused by a fungal infection. It is one of the skin problems in children. It is usually accompanied by fair, red, itchy skin with circular rashes in between. It owes its name to the appearance of ringworm. There is no worm.

Ringworm of the body is related to an athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), itching (tinea cruise), and ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis). Ringworm is often spread through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or animal.

Symptoms of ringworm

Signs and symptoms of ringworm can include:

  • The ring-shaped area usually on the buttocks, trunk, arms, and legs
  • There may be itching
  • The clear or scaly area within the ring, probably with scattered red bumps
  • Slightly raised expanding rings
  • Round, flattened patch of itchy skin
  • Overlapping rings
Causes of ringworm

There are three types of fungi that cause ringworm: trichophyton, Microsporum, and epidermophyton can cause skin problems in children. These fungi are more likely to live longer as spores in the soil. Ringworm can shrink humans and animals after direct contact with this soil.

The infection can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or humans. The infection is usually spread in children and by sharing objects that are susceptible to fungi.

Different types of fungi cause ringworm. Doctors call ringworm by different names depending on where it affects the body:

  • Ringworm of the skin (tinea capitis) often begins as an isolated peeling of the scalp, turning into itchy, scaly patches of baldness. It is a more common skin problem in children.
  • Ringworm of the body (tinea corporis) is often characterized by a round ring shape.
  • Cat itch (tinea cruris) refers to a ringworm infection of the skin around the groin, inner thighs, and buttocks. It is more common in men and adolescents.
  • Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) is the common name for ringworm infection of the foot. It is most often seen in barefoot people in public places where the infection can spread, such as locker rooms, showers, and swimming pools.
Diagnosis of ringworm

Often, the diagnosis of ringworm is clear from its location and appearance. Otherwise, scraping the skin and culturing the affected skin for the microscopic examination can establish the diagnosis of ringworm.

If the diagnosis is unclear, a skin scraping microscope with potassium hydroxide (KOH) can then be reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of a fungus.

If there is a fungal infection and the skin problem is misdiagnosed, improper treatment may be prescribed, which can exacerbate the infection.

Treatment for ringworm

The treatment options for skin problems in children include

Over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal creams, sprays, or powders can resolve a mild infection. More serious infections may require prescription medications, topical (applied to the skin), or in pill/syrup form.

Ringworm on the nails or scalp is usually treated with an ointment taken by mouth for 1 to 3 months. Antifungal shampoo prescribed by your doctor can help prevent it from spreading to other people.

Even if the rash seems to be improving, use lotion as recommended. Otherwise, the infection can return and spread to other parts of the body.

To help the skin heal, it is important to keep the affected area clean and dry. You must:

  • Rinse and pat the area dry with a clean towel. (Use a special clean towel all over your body).
  • Apply antifungal cream, powder, or spray as directed on the label.
  • Change your clothes every day.
  • Treat other fungal infections like athlete’s foot.


Chickenpox has red, itchy blisters that appear all over the body. A virus can cause this condition. It often affects children, and it is very common, it is a childish custom. It is one of the skin problems in children

Symptoms of chickenpox

Chickenpox causes itchy blisters which are visible after 21 days from the contact of the virus and usually lasts for 5-10 days. Other signs and symptoms that appear one to two days before the rash:

  • Fever
  • Lack of appetite
  • Headache
  • The common sense of fatigue and illness (illness)
  • Once the chickenpox rash appears, it goes through three stages:

Grown pink or red bulbs (papules), which break off for several days.

Small fluid-filled vesicles (vesicles) that form within a day and then rupture and leak.

Crusts and scabs, which cover broken blisters and still take many days to heal.

New tumors can appear for several days, so you may have three stages of rash – bumps, blisters, and scabbed lesions – all at once. You can spread the virus to other people for up to 48 hours before the rash appears and the virus will infect until the broken blisters all crust.

The disease is usually mild in healthy children. In severe cases, the rash can cover the entire body and can cause sores in the throat, eyes, and mucous membranes of the bladder, anus, and vagina.

Causes of chickenpox

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox infection. Most cases are caused by contact with an infected person. The virus infects those around it a day or two before the blisters appear. VZV will stick until all blisters have crusted over. The virus is transmitted by:

  • Saliva
  • Cough
  • Sneeze
  • Contact with the liquid from the blisters.
Diagnosis of chickenpox

Doctors can usually diagnose chickenpox by looking at the rash.

In case of doubt that the child has chickenpox, call the doctor immediately. Your doctor can guide you in choosing medicine for problems and to reduce itching.

If you take your child to the doctor, tell the staff beforehand that your child may have chickenpox. It is important not to expose other children in the workplace; For some of them, chickenpox infection can cause serious problems.

Treatment for chickenpox

Most treatments for chickenpox are aimed at reducing symptoms such as severe itching. An aspirin analgesic such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) can be used to reduce fevers and pain. Children should not be given cold medicines containing acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or aspirin as they are at risk of developing ray syndrome (a serious brain disease associated with liver and brain dysfunction and death).

Frequent oatmeal baths (plain oatmeal in water, avenue, etc.) reduce the itching that comes with chickenpox. Additionally, soothing lotions and calamine ion lotion, or any other over-the-counter preparation can be applied to the rash. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or other antihistamines can help control itching. It is suggested to always consult a physician before using any medicines.

In addition to medication, preventative measures are also required. For young children, trimming nails is important to reduce the risk of scratching and to control the risk of secondary bacterial infections such as impetigo or staphylococcus (staff infection).


Impetigo (Im-Puh-Ti-Go) is a common and highly contagious skin infection that primarily affects infants and children. Impetigo usually appears as red sores on the face, especially around the nose and mouth of children, and on the hands and feet. Sores appear and honey-colored crusts form. It is one of the skin problems in children.

Symptoms of impetigo

The classic signs and symptoms of impetigo are red sores, which break open quickly, dissolve over a few days, and then form a yellowish-brown crust. The sores usually appear around the nose and mouth, but they can also spread to other parts of the body through fingers, clothing, and towels. The itching and pain are usually mild.

A less common form of the disorder, called bullous impetigo, can be large blisters that occur on the trunk of infants and young children.

A more serious form of impetigo called eczema goes deep into the skin – painful fluid or pus-filled sores turn into deep ulcers.

Causes of impetigo

Impetigo is an infection caused by a species of staph or streptococcus. These bacteria enter your body through breaks in the skin caused by cuts, scrapes, insect bites, or rashes. Then they can attack and colonize.

The situation is contagious. You can get these bacteria if you touch the sores of a person with impetigo or if you touch objects such as towels, clothing, or sheets that the person uses.

However, these bacteria are also common in our environment and most people who come into contact with them do not necessarily develop motivation.

Some people usually carry congested bacteria inside their noses. If the bacteria spread to your skin, they can become infected.

Diagnosis of impetigo

It is very easy to diagnose impetigo by examining the affected area. Ask the doctor, patient, or caregiver about recent cuts, scrapes, or insect bites in the affected area.

They also try to find out if it is seen with another skin condition like itching.

Further tests may be requested if:

  • Symptoms are severe and spread to many parts of the body.
  • The patient does not respond to treatment.
  • The infection recurs
Treatment for impetigo

The following steps are used to treat impetigo

  • Clean the wound moisten to gently remove the scabs.
  • Apply disinfectant 2-3 times a day for five days (povidone-iodine, 1% hydrogen peroxide cream, chlorhexidine, super-oxidized solution, and others).
  • Cover the affected areas.
  • If oral antibiotics are recommended
  • Symptoms are significant or severe (fever, malaise)
  • There were more than three injured
  • The risk of problems is high
  • The infection has not been resolved or is unlikely to resolve.

The appropriate oral antibiotics in New Zealand are fluoxetine 4 times a day for 5 days (adult dose) and, in the case of allergy or bacterial resistance, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole 960 mg twice a day, five days (adult dose) 800 mg twice a day. Cephalexin 1 g twice daily for 5 days


The human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause warts to grow on the skin. It is one of the skin problems in children that implies to plagued humans for thousands of years – they were discovered in 3,000-year-old mummies and mentioned by Shakespeare. Although pimples are not usually dangerous, they are ugly, embarrassing, and contagious. They are also painful.

Symptoms of warts

Common pimples usually appear on the fingers or hands and can be:

  • Small, fleshy grain bulbs
  • Flesh, white, pink, or tan
  • Hard to the touch
  • Sprinkle with small black dots, clotted blood vessels
Causes of warts

Acne can be caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). It’s easy to catch the virus that causes acne when you cut or scratch your skin. This explains why most children have acne. Acne mainly affects the chin area in men and shaved body parts in women. It can spread pimples from one place to another on your body.

Acne can have serious psychological consequences, especially for teenagers. You can get pimples without touching the pimple on the body. Some people get a pimple after touching someone else’s pimple like a towel. Acne can have serious psychological consequences, especially for teenagers.

Treatment for warts

Over-the-counter medications contain acids that are applied to acne. Acids are exfoliating agents that remove dead skin cells from the pimple and cause the pimple to shed eventually. Over-the-counter treatments should not be used on the face or genitals without first consulting a doctor, as some of them can cause skin damage.

Cryosurgery (pronounced: Kri-o-Sur-Juh-RI) means that a doctor freezes a grain with liquid nitrogen. This treatment is usually done in the doctor’s office.

Laser surgery can be used for pimples that are difficult to remove.

Within a few days of being treated by a doctor, a small pimple usually falls out, although you may need more than one treatment. Treatment for large pimples takes longer.

Over-the-counter treatments may take longer than treatments in the doctor’s office but can be used as initial treatment on the hands or feet. Your doctor may instruct you to use over-the-counter treatments after you’ve had the in-office procedure.

Heat rash (‘Prickly heat’)

Heat rash, also known as prickly heat and heat rash, isn’t just for babies. It is one of the skin problems in children. It also affects adults, especially in hot and humid climates.

Heat rashes develop when the pores (vessels of sweat) under the skin trap sweat. Symptoms range from shallow blisters to deep red spots. Some forms of heat rash can feel dirty or very itchy.

Symptoms of heat rash

Adults usually develop hot rashes in the folds of the skin and wear and tear can cause friction. In babies, the rash mainly affects the neck, shoulders, and chest. It is also found in the armpits, elbow joints, and groin.

Causes of heat rash

Excessive sweating causes the vessels of the sweat glands to become blocked and sweat is not allowed to evaporate from a specific area. The following are some examples of how stagnation occurs:

  • Skin folds, such as the neck, armpit, or groin, have skin adjacent to the skin that makes it difficult for air to circulate and prevents sweat from evaporating.
  • Tight clothing that prevents sweat evaporation
  • Build with heavy clothing or sheets. It can occur when a person tries to stay warm in the winter or is cold due to illness with fever.
  • Thick creams or lotions can clog the sweat vessels
Diagnosis of heat rash

Diagnosis is made by observing the rash symptom in some common places on the skin, especially after heat-related exposure. A doctor can usually make a diagnosis with a visual examination of the rash. However, complicated or typical cases require confirmation by skin culture, skin scrapings, or biopsy. Other skin problems in children are mimic heat rashes, including allergic reactions, bacterial infections, yeast infections, or eczema.

Treatment for heat rash

In most cases, the rash will clear up on its own in a few days if the affected area is kept cool and dry. So cool your body in an air-conditioned room or with a fan, or take a cold shower or bath and let your skin air dry. Once the skin is cool and dry again, do not use any oil-based products that block the sweat glands.

If your itch doesn’t go away in a few days, or you have an infection where the bumps break out, you may need medicine, so call your doctor. Also, call a doctor if you have a fever or signs of illness. If you are taking antibiotics or other new medications and the rash is developing, you should also call your doctor.

Contact dermatitis

An allergic reaction to a substance causes contact dermatitis which is a red, itchy rash. It is one of the skin problems in children. The rash is not contagious or malignant, but it can be very uncomfortable.

Many substances, including soaps, cosmetics, perfumes, jewelry, and plants, can cause such reactions.

Symptoms of contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis causes symptoms and it depends on how sensitive you are to the substance.

Allergic contact dermatitis

Symptoms associated with allergic contact dermatitis:

  • Dry and flaky skin
  • Urticaria
  • Blisters
  • The skin is red
  • The skin appears black or leathery
  • Burning skin
  • Severe itching
  • Sun sensitivity
  • Swelling especially in the eyes, face, or groin
  • Irritant contact dermatitis

Irritant contact dermatitis causes slightly different symptoms, including:

  • Blisters
  • Cracking of the skin due to extreme dryness
  • Inflammation
  • Skin that feels tight or tight
  • Ulceration
  • Open sores where scabs form
Causes of contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis can irritate your skin due to the substance to which you are exposed or trigger an allergic reaction. This substance can be one of the thousands of known allergens and irritants. Some of these substances can cause both irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

Irritant contact dermatitis is the most common type. This non-allergic skin reaction occurs when a substance damages the outer protective layer of the skin.

Some people respond with severe irritation after a single exposure. Others may develop signs and symptoms after repeated exposure to even mild irritants. And some develop intolerance to the substance over time.

Diagnosis of contact dermatitis

Sometimes contact allergy is easy to detect and does not require specific tests. Having a very good history, including information about the work environment, hobbies, products at home and work, and sunlight increases the chances of finding a diagnosis. If the skin is not in contact with allergens, the rash will usually (but not always) disappear completely, but it will reappear even with light contact with it.

Open application tests are used to diagnose contact allergy to cosmetics such as moisturizers. The suspect product is applied to a small area of ​​sensitive skin several times a day for several days. The inner arm of the upper arm is suitable. Contact allergy is more likely to occur if dermatitis occurs in the treated area.

Dermatologists perform patch tests on patients with contact allergies, especially if the reaction is severe, recurrent, or chronic. The tests can detect specific allergens that cause rashes.

Treatment for contact dermatitis

Identifying the trigger is essential to give proper advice. Avoiding the treatment of hives is essential. If it cannot be avoided, the rash can become chronic, stop, and cause a significant deterioration in the quality of life. Tips may include:

  • Symptoms for severe symptoms, cold compresses can help with itching.
  • For patients with Ou lesions, Buro’s solution (aluminum triacetate), calamine, and/or oatmeal baths can also be used.
  • In hand dermatitis, it is advisable to wash your hands frequently and use non-irritating moisturizers. Choose mild soaps, moisturizers, and detergents without dyes or fragrances. Wear gloves to protect your hands and other body parts from exposure if contact with these chemicals cannot be avoided, but be aware that you may be allergic to the chemicals in the gloves.
  • In foot dermatitis, wearing protective socks can help.
  • All wash skin immediately after contact with an allergen.
  • Apply covers over metal fasteners on clothing to avoid contact with nickel ick.

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