Causes and Treatments of Scabies | Prevention | Dermatology

Scabies

What is scabies?

A mite known as the Sarcoptes scabies causes Scabies. These microscopic mites can live on your skin for months if left untreated. They reproduce on the surface of your skin and then burrow into it and lay eggs. An itchy, red rash forms on the skin.

Causes of scabies

An eight-legged worm microscope that causes itching in humans. The female worm hides under her skin and makes a tunnel for laying eggs. The eggs hatch and the mite larvae rise to the surface of your skin, where they mature and spread to other areas of your skin or the skin of other people. An itchy scalp is caused by an allergic reaction to worms, their eggs, and wastes in your body.

Close physical contact and, less often, sharing clothing or bedding with an infected person can spread the worms. Animals and humans are affected by their particular species of worms. Each species prefers a specific type of host and does not live long on that preferred host.

Humans can have a temporary skin reaction from contact with animal scabies. But people generally don’t develop full itch from this source because they are associated with the human itch worm.

Risk factors

Itching can occur in anyone who develops a normal form of the infection, and Norwegian (crusted) itching can occur in people whose immune system is not properly functioning due to factors such as HIV infection, leukaemia, chemotherapy, and other treatments. Immunizations, or severe malnutrition. It is a more aggressive form of infection.

Symptoms of scabies

The appearance of itchy symptoms depends on whether the person has been exposed to the worms or not. When a person is exposed to the itch worm, symptoms take 2 to 6 weeks to appear.

Symptoms may appear after 2 to 6 weeks when the person is exposed to the itch worm. Because the body’s immune system responds quickly, usually within 1 to 4 days, this period is significantly shorter with the next infestation.

Signs and symptoms of itching:

  • Itching: It is very intense at night and can be intense and severe. Itching is one of the most common itching symptoms.
  • Rash: When the mite enters the skin, it forms grooves or burrowing lines, which are usually found in skin folds and resemble patches of skin with rashes, bites, knots, pimples, or scales. There may also be blisters.
  • Sores: occur in areas where a person has scratches on the skin. Open sores cause impetigo, usually caused by a secondary infection with Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Thick scabs: Crusted scabies, also known as Norwegian scabies, is a severe form of scabies in which hundreds or thousands of worms and mite eggs attach to the scabs of the skin, causing severe skin symptoms.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of scabies infestation is usually made based on the habit and distribution of the rash and the presence of burrows.

Whenever possible, the diagnosis of itching should be made by locating mites or mite eggs, or feces. This can be done by gently removing the worm from the end of its burrow with the tip of a needle or by scraping the skin to examine under a microscope for worms, eggs, or mite fecal matter. However, a person can still become infected if no worms, eggs, or feces are found; There maybe 10 to 15 worms in a less healthy person.

Treatment for scabies

The itching can be treated with medicine to clear the infection. Many creams and lotions are available by prescription.

Your doctor will ask you to apply it all over your body, down from the neck, and leave the medicine on for at least eight to 10 hours. Some treatments require a second application and treatments may need to be repeated if new burrs and rashes appear.

Because itching spreads so easily, your doctor may recommend treatment for all household members and other close acquaintances, even if they show no signs of itching.

Commonly prescribed medications for itching are:

  • Permethrin cream: Permethrin is a topical cream that contains chemicals that kill scabies and its eggs. It is generally considered safe for adults, pregnant women, and children 2 months and older.
  • Ivermectin: People with the transplanted immune system and people who do not respond to lotions and creams are advised to use it. Ivermectin is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women or children weighing less than 33 pounds (15 kg).
  • Crotamiton: These medications are available in a cream or ion form. It is applied once a day for two days. The safety of this medicine has not been established in children, adults over 65, or pregnant or lactating women. Frequent cases of failure of crotamiton treatment have been reported. Although these medications kill the worms immediately, the itching may not stop completely for several weeks.

Doctors may prescribe other topical actions, such as sulfur mixed in petroleum jelly, for people who do not respond to or cannot use these medications.

Prevention

Itching can be prevented by avoiding direct contact with an infected person or infected person or with items such as clothing or bedding that the infected person wears.

  • Treatment of itching is generally recommended for members of the same household, especially those with prolonged skin-to-skin contact.
  • All household members and other outsiders must be treated at the same time.
  • Bedding and clothing must be applied or worn next to the skin anytime within 3 days before treatment and must be machine washed or dry cleaned with hot water and hot tumble dryer wheels.
  • Dry cleaning or non-laundry items can be disinfected by storing them in a sealed plastic bag for several days to a week.
  • Scabies generally does not survive more than 2 to 3 days on human skin. Children and adults can usually work the day after daycare, school, or treatment.

Complications

  • In severe cases, the itchy areas of skin can develop crusty sores. This problem, known as Norwegian itch, is a modern form of the condition that usually develops in people with weakened immune systems.
  • Crusted skin has a higher density of worms than is usually seen with scabies. This condition is more difficult to treat and highly contagious.
  • Bacterial skin diseases require a different treatment than is used for itching. If you notice redness, swelling, or warmth on your skin, you may have a bacterial skin infection along with itching.
  • In areas where itching is common, people often suffer from recurring infections. 5 Recurring infections can be uncomfortable and make it difficult to remove the infection from the home.
  • Also, for some, recurrent infections are associated with serious complications, including bacterial infection of the blood (sepsis), although this is very rare and is usually caused by an immune defect. Most itching problems are limited to the skin.

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