Causes and Treatments of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma | Oncology

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Overview of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is cancer that develops in your lymphatic system and spreads throughout your body. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma, tumours develop from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more common than any other common type of lymphoma:

Hodgkin’s lymphoma: There are different subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma are the most common subtypes.

Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma have helped improve the prognosis for those with the disease. Cells can become cancerous anywhere in the body and spread to other areas. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, what is cancer?

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL, or sometimes lymphoma) is cancer that begins in white blood cells called lymphocytes that are part of the body’s immune system. NHL is a term used for many types of lymphoma that share the same characteristics. There is another important type of lymphoma, called Hodgkin lymphoma, which is treated differently. See Hodgkin lymphoma.

See Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children. NHL usually begins in the lymph nodes or other lymphatic tissues, but can sometimes affect the skin. See skin lymphoma.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphomas except Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. Other symptoms can include bone pain, chest pain, or itching. Some forms grow slowly, while others evolve quickly.

Treatment depends on whether the lymphoma is slow or growing rapidly and if it is in one area or in many areas. Treatments may include chemotherapy, radiation, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, surgery, or intensive care. If the blood is too thick due to a large number of antibodies, plasmapheresis can be used. Radiation and some chemotherapy can increase the risk of other cancers, heart disease, or neurological problems for decades to come.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma types

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is divided into more than 30 types, including the type of lymphocyte: B lymphocytes (B cells) or T lymphocytes (T cells). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is further classified by other factors as aggressive (increasing rapidly) or impatient (increasing slowly).

Aggressive lymphomas:

  • The spread of large B-cell lymphoma
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
  • Burkitt lymphoma
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma
  • Mantle cell lymphoma
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma

Unpleasant lymphomas:

  • Follicular lymphoma
  • Catanous T-cell lymphoma
  • Lymphoplasmotic lymphoma
  • Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma
  • MALT lymphoma
  • Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma


Scientists have made great strides in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal lymphocytes to turn into lymphoma cells. DNA is a chemical in our cells that produces our genes that control how our cells work. But DNA affects more than how we are.

Some genes control when cells grow, divide, and die:

  • Oncogenes are genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive.
  • Genes that control cell division or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumour suppressor genes.
  • DNA mutations that cause cancer to spread can convert oncogenes or inhibit tumour suppressor genes.

Some people inherit DNA mutations from their parents that increase the risk of certain types of cancer. Having a family history of lymphoma (Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, CLL) increases your risk of lymphoma.

NHL-related gene mutations are generally inherited rather than inherited. Acquired genetic mutations can be caused by exposure to radiation, carcinogenic chemicals, or infections, but these changes often occur for no apparent reason. They seem to happen more frequently in our time, which helps to explain why so many lymphomas appear in the elderly.

Now some genetic changes are known that lead to certain types of lymphoma. For example, in follicular lymphoma, cells often have DNA (called a translocation) between chromosomes 14 and 18, which activates the BCL-2 oncogene. (Chromosomes are long strands of DNA in every cell.) This oncogene prevents the cell from dying at the right time, leading to lymphoma.

Scientists are learning a lot about the exact genetic changes involved in the different types of NHL. This information is used to develop more accurate tests to identify and classify certain types of lymphoma. Hopefully, these discoveries will be useful in developing new therapies.

Symptoms & signs of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Having one or more symptoms does not necessarily mean that you have Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. In fact, many of the symptoms listed here are likely caused by other conditions, such as an infection. However, if you have any of these symptoms, a doctor can monitor them and, if necessary, find the cause and treat it.

Some common signs and symptoms are:

  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Cold
  • Weightloss
  • Fatigue (you feel very tired)
  • Swelling of the abdomen (belly)
  • Feels full only after a minimal meal
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Sneezing or coughing when breathing
  • Acute or frequent infections
  • Easy bruising or bleeding

Some people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma have B symptoms:

  • Fever (which can last for days or weeks)
  • Sweating at night
  • Effortless weight loss (at least 10% of body weight in 6 months)

Risk factors

Any risk factor that increases a person’s chances of getting cancer. Although risk factors often affect cancer development, most do not directly cause it. Some people with many risk factors never develop cancer, while others do not. Knowing your risk factors and talking to your doctor about them can help you make more informed decisions about your lifestyle and health care.

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma is unknown, and many people who have it do not know its cause. However, the following factors can increase a person’s risk of developing NHL:

  • Years: The risk of NHL increases with age. Subsidiaries are very common among people between the ages of 60 and 70. Gender. Men are more likely to develop NHL than women.
  • Bacterial infections: For example, stomach mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is believed to be caused by infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. If this lymphoma is diagnosed too early, it will sometimes go away if the infection is cured with antibiotics. Infections can also cause other types of MALT lymphoma that affect the lungs, tear glands, and skin.
  • Virus: Viruses cause certain types of NHL. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a virus that causes mononucleosis, also known as “mono”, and is associated with certain types of NHL. These include Burkitt’s lymphoma, lymphomas that develop after organ transplantation, and, rarely, other lymphomas in healthy people. Almost everyone has EBV, so the virus is not the only factor that determines cancer risk. NHL derived from EBV is the result of the body’s inability to control the virus. Therefore, people with mononucleosis are not at risk of developing NHL in the future. Also, hepatitis C infection is associated with an increased risk of spleen marginal zone lymphomas (see subtypes). Researchers have found that other viruses that cause other, rarer types of lymphoma are also important.
  • Immunodeficiency disorders: Immune system disorders such as HIV / AIDS increase the risk of NHL, especially aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
  • Autoimmune disorders: People with autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and Zagreb syndrome are at increased risk of developing certain types of NHL. Some medications used to treat autoimmune disorders increase the risk of NHL.
  • Organ transplant: The risk of NHL is higher for organ transplant recipients. This is due to the medications that patients must take to reduce immune system function and protect the transplanted organ from rejection.
  • Previous cancer treatment: Previous treatment with certain drugs for other types of cancer can increase the risk of NHL.

Preventive measures

Avoid behaviours that increase your risk of getting AIDS and hepatitis C infections, which weaken the immune system.

  • Avoid unnecessary radiation exposure.
  • Maintain a normal weight and eat a healthy diet.

In rare cases, some women develop lymphoma in the scar tissue that surrounds the breast implants. The decision to have breast implants should be well thought out.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the white blood cell lymphocytes found in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of a series of vessels that drain excess fluid from the tissues. The system contains lymph nodes, small glands that filter this fluid and trap foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria (lymphocytes), and other small organs, such as the spleen, that filter the blood and fight infection. People with non-Hodgkin lymphoma have abnormal lymphocytes, which form tumours in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs.

Doctors do not fully understand what causes non-Hodgkin lymphoma. When one lymphocyte divides to make another lymphocyte, an error in the genetic copy can lead to a cancer mutation. Because a healthy immune system can detect and destroy these abnormal cells, you are at risk of developing this cancer if your immune system is not working properly. For example, people with HIV, those with inherited immune disorders, or those on long-term immunosuppressive therapy are slightly more likely to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma than the general population.

People with non-Hodgkin lymphoma may experience weight loss, unexplained fevers above 101 degrees, and night sweats. There may also be swollen lymph nodes in the collarbone, under the arms, or on both sides of the neck around the groin, and there may be swelling in the abdomen due to the enlarged spleen.

Treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma

For Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, treatments depend on the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, its quality study, and symptom. The purpose of the transmitter is to transmit the transcript of the manual to the standard of the rules to minimize the effects of transcendentals. Talk to your music about the second effect associations with the treatment.

Common procedures for non-Hodgkin lymphoma are:

  • Chemotherapy (drugs)
  • Radiation
  • Monoclonal antibody immunotherapy
  • Tyrosine inhibitors
  • Transplant just the cells
  • Surgery, in cassock

These therapies can also be used in combinations alone, depending on the type, stage, and characteristics of NHL.

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