Bone Marrow Biopsy and Aspiration Risk Factors | Oncology

Bone marrow biopsy

What is a bone marrow biopsy?

A bone marrow biopsy is a medical exam in which a doctor requests that a sample of bone marrow be collected and analyzed. This is done to check if the tissue is healthy and the production of blood cells is normal.

In this procedure, the doctor inserts a small needle into the large bone and inserts a sample of bone marrow into the needle. Then a laboratory technician analyzes the sample for a variety of diseases, including many cancers.

In this article, we’ll look at the possible causes of a bone marrow biopsy, what it contains, and the risks involved. Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration extraction and examination of the bone marrow, the soft tissue of large bones.

The bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy show if your bone marrow is healthy and is producing normal amounts of blood cells. Doctors use these procedures to diagnose and monitor diseases of the blood and bone marrow, as well as some cancers, as well as fevers of unknown origin.

The bone marrow contains the liquid part and the solid part. In a bone marrow biopsy, your doctor will use a needle to remove a sample of the solid part. In bone marrow aspiration, a needle is used to remove the sample of the liquid component.

The bone marrow biopsy and the bone marrow aspiration often occur at the same time. Collectively, these procedures are called bone marrow exams.

Why bone marrow biopsy is done?

Your doctor may order a bone marrow biopsy if your blood tests show the level of your platelets, or if your white or red blood cells are too high or too low. The biopsy can help identify the cause of these abnormalities, including:

  • Anemia or low red blood cell count
  • Bone marrow diseases, myelofibrosis, or myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Blood cell disorders, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, or polycythemia
  • Bone marrow or blood cancers, such as leukemia or lymphomas
  • Hemochromatosis, a genetic disorder in which iron is formed in the blood
  • Infection or fever of unknown origin
  • These conditions affect your blood cell production and blood cell levels

Your doctor may also order a bone marrow test to see how far a disease has progressed, to determine the stage of cancer, or to monitor the effects of treatment.

When bone marrow biopsy is performed

Your doctor may have prescribed them for one or more reasons. Among other things, they want:

  • Diagnose diseases of the bone marrow or blood cells
  • Identify the stage of a disease
  • Determine the success of disease treatment
  • Check your iron levels
  • Study fever when the cause is unknown

Procedure for bone marrow biopsy

You can do a biopsy at your doctor’s office, clinic, or hospital. The procedure is usually performed by a doctor who specializes in blood disorders or cancer, such as a hematologist or oncologist. The actual biopsy takes about 10 minutes.

Before the biopsy, you put on a hospital gown and have your heart rate and blood pressure checked. Your doctor will tell you to sit on your side or face down. They then apply a local anesthetic to the skin and bone to numb the area where the biopsy will be taken. The bone marrow biopsy is usually taken from the apex of the hip bone behind you or from the breastbone.

You may feel a brief sting while the anesthetic is injected. The hollow needle is then easily passed through your skin for your doctor to make a small incision.

The needle penetrates the bone and picks up the red card, but does not go near the spinal cord. You may experience a dull ache or discomfort when the needle enters your bone. After the procedure, your doctor will apply pressure to that area to stop any bleeding and then bandage the incision.

You may feel slight pain for a week after the procedure, but for most people, this does not happen. To help control pain, your doctor may prescribe pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. You should also care for the incision wound, keeping it dry for 24 hours after the biopsy.

Avoid strenuous activity for a day or two to avoid opening the wound. See your doctor as soon as you experience:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Increased pain
  • Inflammation
  • Sewer system
  • Fever

During this time, the lab will examine your bone marrow. Waiting for results can take one to three weeks. Once your results are available, your doctor can call or schedule the next appointment to discuss the results.

You can lie on your stomach, under your face, or on your side while doing the tests. Bone marrow samples are taken from the back of the hip bone. Here, in order, what usually happens during procedures:

  • Medical staff monitors your blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature.
  • If you request anesthesia in advance, you will receive it several minutes before the first procedure.
  • Medical personnel uses a disinfectant to clean your skin where the needle goes.
  • You can get medicine to numb the area.
  • For the aspiration, the doctor inserted a needle into your bone. You may feel some stress. Then they remove a small amount of fluid from the bone marrow through a needle. You may experience brief pain or a tingling sensation under your leg as the cord is removed.
  • For the biopsy, a slightly larger needle is used. This needle goes to the old site and removes a small part of your marrow. You may also experience some stress during this procedure.
  • After completing both procedures, a small bandage is placed where the needles went.
  • The two procedures together generally take 10 minutes and the entire process takes 30 minutes.

Risk factors of bone marrow biopsy

The trusted source for the British Hematology Society found that but 1 percent of bone marrow tests cause adverse events. the most risk of this procedure is bleeding or excessive bleeding.

Other reported issues:

  • Allergic reaction to anesthesia
  • Infection
  • Persistent pain after the biopsy
  • Talk to your doctor before a biopsy if you’ve got ill health or are taking medication, especially if you’re in danger of bleeding


Your bone marrow samples will be sent to a lab for specialists to see. Your doctor can get the results in a few days, but it will take longer. Information from the laboratory can help your doctor.

  • Confirm or confirm the diagnosis
  • Identify how a disease has developed
  • Determine how well the treatment works

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