General Topics

Types and Symptoms of Nail Fungus in Children | Dermatology

What is nail fungus in children?

Nail fungus in children makes up about half of all nail abnormalities. However, we know very little about it. A fungal infection of the nails generally does not cause a serious problem for children, but the nails may sometimes show signs of damage and even become painful!

Nail fungus in children infections are not usually dangerous, but they can be troublesome for your child and in some cases difficult to treat. Nail fungus in children usually develops over time and can take longer to clear. When your child has a nail fungal infection, wearing shoes may be uncomfortable or painful. He will find it difficult to walk or stand as well. Here’s the scariest part: Fungi can also spread to nails and other skin, and even cause permanent damage to the nail bed!

Types of nail fungus & how to identify them?

Before moving on to species, it is important to know what nail fungi really are. It is an infection of the toenails and nails that enters through cracks in the nails or the skin. The problem is further exacerbated if you live in a warm, humid environment.

Yellow or white nails

Distal mycorrhizal fungi (DSO) are the most common fungal infection. Here, the infection begins at the end of the nail bed, and part of the nail turns yellow or white.

Chalk-like powder on nails

Superficial white onychomycosis (WSO)  influences the top layer of the nail, shaping white spots on a superficial level and at the end covering the whole nail with a powder that resembles chalk.

Fungus on toes

Fungal candida fungus, also known as a yeast infection, is somewhat uncommon and mostly affects the toenails rather than the toenails.

Symptoms of nail fungus in children

The most common nail fungus in children’s symptoms is thickening and discoloration of the nails, which may be white, black, yellow, or green. In cases where the infection persists for a long time, the nails may become brittle, and nail degeneration may occur if the condition remains untreated.

Causes of nail fungus in children

Nail fungus in children is caused by a variety of fungi belonging to the groups of dermatophytes, non-dermal molds, and yeasts. They cause infection when they have the right conditions for attachment and reproduction on the nail. The following factors can cause fungi to infect toenails include:

  • Wearing shoes with limited ventilation, socks that do not absorb sweat, or tall boots all day can lead to a fungal nail infection due to sweat.
  • Sharing the towels and napkins with others may infect the child with the fungus.
  • Children who play in the water or swim may have their hands and feet wet for a long time, which increases the risk of developing a fungal infection.
  • Children with diabetes, weak or weak immune systems, and problems with the circulatory system may be more likely to be affected.
  • Certain conditions, such as psoriasis and down syndrome, increase the risk. Existing nail injuries may also increase the risk.
  • An existing athlete’s foot (a fungal infection of the foot) may cause the infection to spread to other toenails, where it can reach the toenails.
  • A moist, warm environment may increase your risk of contracting mold in general.

Diagnosis of nail fungus in children

The dermatologist or doctor will examine the nail and the surrounding skin for symptoms of a fungal infection. A sample of nail remains may be collected for analysis under a microscope. It can help diagnose definitively the nail fungus in children and the exact type of fungus causing the infection.

Nail fungus in children treatments

Nail fungus in children should be emphasized that safe and effective treatment is critical in treating nail fungus in children and young adults. What works for adults can be dangerous for children. Therefore, before giving children and infants any medication, it must be approved, recommended, and prescribed by a doctor first.

For oral treatment, griseofulvin is currently the only medication approved for use in children. However, its effectiveness is not fully reliable. Only about three-quarters of affected toenails and one-third of toenails are treated. As with most anti-fungal treatments, griseofulvin takes several months of treatment before a visible result appears. Also, a recurrence of fungi is expected even after treatment. Griseofulvin is fully absorbed by the body only if it is taken with fatty foods.

Terbinafine is more effective, but the FDA has not approved it for use in children. Some studies have shown the drug to be safe and effective, but again, it has not yet been classified as safe for children to use by the FDA.

While nail medical procedure can be a viable therapy for grown-ups, it isn’t suggested for kids. Never heard of it before. A doctor may recommend removing the entire nail in severe cases, but this must be done by a licensed professional and should not be attempted at home.

On the other hand, some topical treatments are ineffective because these products cannot penetrate the nail to reach the fungus.

However, modern topical products have been improved and are more effective at getting rid of nail fungus. A topical solution containing 10% acid with penetrating essential oils can be an effective and safe solution to nail fungus infection in children and infants.


Keep your child’s hands and feet clean and dry and have him wear shoes that allow the feet to breathe. Also, keep socks and nails trimmed.

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Cancer detection equipments | Oncology

What is cancer detection?

Cancer detection is a multi-stage process. Often times, the patient will go to the doctor for some symptom or another. Sometimes cancer is discovered by chance or through screening tests. The final diagnosis of cancer is based on the opinion of a pathologist.


Cancer detection often involves radiological imaging. The images are also used to check the spread of cancer and the progress of treatment, and to monitor cancer.

Oncological images are increasingly varied and accurate. The different imaging techniques aim to find the most suitable treatment option for each patient. Imaging techniques are frequently used in combination to obtain sufficient information.

The most common imaging process used for cancer detection and monitor its feast is computed tomography (CT), which provides cross-sectional computer images. CT scans are done using X-rays.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a procedure that uses powerful magnetic fields. This does not generate ionizing radiation. Situations in which MRI is used include the examination of cancer or sarcoma in the head and neck region.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) is founded on the faster metabolic rate of cancer cells compared to normal cells. With PET images, the patient receives a radioactive tracer that is detected by scintigraphy. PET images can also be combined with CT.
  • Ultrasound examination is helpful in examining the cervix, pancreas, liver, and kidneys. Needle biopsies can also be taken in ultrasound exams.
  • Endoscopic examinations are usually to inspect the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, cervix, prostate, bladder, or head, and neck region.
  • In mammography, an X-ray image is used to examine breast tumors. Mammography is also used in the detection of breast cancer.
  • In isotopic diagnosis, a radioactive tracer is introduced into the patient’s body. The marker goes to the organ to be examined, and various imaging methods can be used to determine if cancer has spread. Isotopic diagnostics can be used to identify prevalent cancers such as breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer.

New tests and devices for early cancer detection

Simple blood draw

At Thrive, which launched in April 2019 with $ 110 million in venture capital funding, the company is developing and commercializing a liquid biopsy test based on technology developed by researchers at Johns Hopkins University. In just six months, the company’s staff had grown from 25 to 50 and added a location in Cambridge, MA.

Called Cancer SEEK, the test looks at simple blood draw not for cancer cells themselves, but cancer business cards, specifically genetic mutations in 61 regions of 16 genes, as well as eight additional protein biomarkers that serve to identify the early stages of eight commons. cancers.

The doctor explained: “Cancers in the earliest stages can shed minuscule amounts of material into plasma, so it is very important to have a high-precision method to interrogate the DNA bases that we isolate, and to do that, we use a combination of high-throughput sequencing technology, as well as an error correction technology, which was also industrialized at Johns Hopkins, to accurately identify rare variants”. Additionally, Cancer SEEK analyzes white blood cells as a way to identify mutations that actually arise from benign neoplasms rather than cancer. “This combination of bioinformatics and wet laboratory methods maximizes exactness in DNA sequencing,” he said.

Thrive is currently completing a 10,000-patient study of Cancer SEEK, and the company hopes to use the results to help inform the design of future studies it will use to gain approval from the US Food and Drug Management (FDA). for the test, according to Kinder.

Cancer scaffold

Two research groups at the University of Michigan (U-M) are also emerging cancer detection technologies, but in the form of two very different devices to trick tumor cells as they travel through the bloodstream.

One of the devices is an implanted scaffold that serves as a decoy at the metastatic site for breast cancer cells that would otherwise spread to their favorite solid organ targets, namely the lung, liver, bone, and brain, according to Lonnie. Shea, Ph.D., UM William and Valerie Hall Chair in Biomedical Engineering. Shea’s research counterpart is Jacqueline Jeruss, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of surgery at U-M, and associate professor of biomedical engineering.

External device that goes big

Another group at U-M is taking a different tack and building a portable device designed to test a large volume of a patient’s blood. What really motivated this project is that we know that CTCs are the seed of metastases and we find them even in early-stage cancer patients, so we didn’t want to lose any of these important cells,” said lead researcher Sunitha Nagrath. Ph.D., associate professor of chemical engineering and part of the Rogel Cancer Center at UM.

For this project, the researchers developed a system that continuously routes blood out of a vein through a catheter, sends it to a small detection device that collects any CTCs, and then directs the CTC-free blood through another catheter and back to the vein. When designing the system, they had to move blood quickly and smoothly through the cancer detection device, so they put their expertise in microfluidic systems to work and came up with a blood pump to maintain a sufficient flow rate and a separate pump to continuously infuse heparin that prevents the formation of clots. They then added a highly sensitive CTC capture chip, which she and other U-M researchers had before developed, that uses antibodies to filter out CTCs.

Cancer detection device – breath cancer detection

Sniff Phone, the cancer detection device

Sniff Phone is a small sensor developed as a cancer detection device that can be linked to a smartphone.

In practice, the user grips the cancer detection device in front of their mouth and respires over the sensor to give a breath sample. This cancer test measures limited volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using highly sensitive chemical sensors based on nanotechnology.

The measurements are then sent via Bluetooth using a smartphone to a dedicated cloud platform, where they are analyzed by the appropriate medical staff.

The Sniff Phone project is funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 Program for research, technological development, and demonstration. The Sniff Phone was developed by a consortium of nine partners from six countries. The Sniff Phone Nanosensors were developed in Israel, the Cellix micropump in Ireland, the Microfluidic Chip Shop fluids in Germany, and the VTT cloud platform in Finland.

The benefits of detecting cancer from the breath

The new cancer detection device has many compensations over traditional methods: the device is contented and painless to use. In addition, it provides a simple, fast, and cost-effective alternative for the detection of gastric cancers.

The project has developed and validated Sniff Phone prototypes through, for example, clinical studies. The next step in the project is to find funders for this type of novel cancer screening method. It is planned that the marketing of the device will take place through a spin-off company.

VTT’s role in the project was the implementation of the platform to transfer data from the smartphone to cloud-based storage space. VTT has also developed testing tools and methods to recognize high-risk patients.

In addition, VTT created a mobile application that guides the user in taking a breath sample and provides a preliminary analysis of the sample. Additionally, a medical analysis tool has been developed to display the results of breath sample analysis.

A new device can detect cancer with just a drop of blood

Some cancers, such as ovarian cancer, tend to go undetected until they are too advanced for treatment to be effective. Now an innovative tool can detect cancer easily, quickly, and in minuscule amounts of blood.

In an attempt to find a simple and effective way to identify difficult-to-diagnose cancers, researchers at the University of Kansas (KU) in Lawrence and the KU Cancer Center and KU Medical Center in Kansas City have developed an ultra-sensitive cancer detection system. device.

The device dubbed a “3-D nanopattern microfluidic chip,” could successfully detect cancer markers in the tiniest drop of blood or in a component of blood called plasma.

Lead author Yong Zeng, an associate professor of chemistry at KU, and his team describe how the new tool works in a paper published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering.

This device, the scientists explain, identifies and diagnoses cancer by “filtering” the exosomes, which are small vesicles produced by some eukaryotic cells.

In the case of cancer cells, exosomes contain biological information that can direct the growth and spread of the tumor.

General Topics

Implications of Diabetes and Cancer | Oncology

What are the implications of diabetes and cancer?

Implications of diabetes and cancer are common diseases with a tremendous impact on health around the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with diabetes are at a significantly higher risk of developing many forms of cancer. Type 2 diabetes and cancer share many risk factors, but the potential biological links between the two diseases are not fully understood. Additionally, evidence from observational studies suggests that some medications used to treat hyperglycemia are associated with a higher or lower risk of cancer. In this context, the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer society convened a consensus-building conference in December 2009. Following a series of scientific presentations from experts in the field, the writing group independently developed this consensus report to address the following questions:

  • Is there a significant association between diabetes and cancer incidence or prognosis?
  • What risk factors are mutual to together diabetes and cancer?
  • What are the possible biological links between diabetes and cancer risk?
  • Do diabetes treatments inspire cancer risk or cancer prognosis?

What risk factors are common to together diabetes and cancer?

Potential risk factors (adaptable and non-modifiable) common to both diabetes and cancer contain aging, sex, obesity, physical activity, diet, alcohol, and smoking.

Diabetes and cancer risk ratio

In recent decades, diabetes has been consistently associated with an increased risk of a wide variety of malignancies. Studies reporting an increase in all cancer sites carry the risk of missing a modest association of site-specific cancers. Furthermore, discrepancies in results between studies may be partially explained by the varied prevalence of specific cancers they accounted for in various study populations. On the other hand, the increase in general cancer incidence may not be accompanied by transparent increases in organ-specific malignancies and should still be a reason to improve cancer surveillance among diabetic patients.

The meta-analysis combining 12 cohort studies with a total number of 257,222 participants showed a significant elevation of the pooled adjusted risk ratio (RR) for the incidence of all cancers; The RRs were 1.14 (95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.08-1.28) for men and women, respectively [38]. Another meta-analysis conducted in studies originating in Japan (with a total of 250,479 subjects from four cohorts and a case-control study) demonstrated a slightly higher overall cancer risk with adjusted RR 1.25 (95% CI, 1.06- 1.46) for men and 1.23 (95%% CI, 0.97-1.56) for women. This can be attributed to a different proportion of specific cancer prevalence in Japan, with substantially higher rates of gastric, pancreatic, and hepatocellular cancers. On the other hand, subjects with diabetes who received treatment for hypertension and/or dyslipidemia (assuming this group reflects a more intensive medical examination) showed a higher HR of 1.37 [40]. Though, a large retrospective study on a total of 985,815 subjects demonstrated that the risk of cancer occurrence in diabetes (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.43-1.71) is independent of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and gout. Additionally, another large retrospective cohort study (895,434 DM cases) showed a slight increase (HR = 1.19, 95% CI, 1.17-1.19) in cancer risk at most sites. The risk was also more influential in the younger age group, so it is reasonable to suspect that this may be attributable to metabolic dysfunction prior to DM diagnosis. Concurrent with the previous findings, the results of a prospective cohort study in the German population (26, a total of 742 subjects) showed an increased risk of cancer with SIR 1.14 (95% CI, 1.10-1, 21), but the duration of diabetes was inversely associated with cancer risk, which was markedly higher in the first year after a diabetes diagnosis.

Observations from two retrospective cohort studies from Belgium (4012 diabetic subjects) and China (7950 diabetic subjects) were consistent with previous reports, although overall cancer risks were slightly higher with an HR 1.84 (95% CI; 1.51-2.24) [44] and SIR 1,331 (95% CI, 1,143–1,518) in men and 1,737 (95% CI, 1,478–1,997) in women. According to the inclusion criteria of most studies, the risk of cancer was assessed among patients with IMDM and non-melanoma skin cancers were excluded from the analysis. In summary, diabetes and hyperglycemia were shown to be associated with an overall elevated risk of cancer. Exact values ​​of estimated risk may vary due to study design, the impact of confounding factors, and ethnic differences, including genetic susceptibility, lifestyle behaviors, specific environmental exposures, and variable biological effects of diabetes. in populations. All these factors are summarized in several cohorts, prospective, and meta-analysis studies from different countries.

Incidence of dissimilar types of cancer among diabetic patients

According to various meta-analyzes, a higher frequency of malignant neoplasms in diabetic patients has been attributed to various general and local mechanisms.

The strongest association between DM and increased risk of cancer is with cancer of the pancreas and liver, two major target organs of insulin metabolism involved in the metabolic disorders typical of diabetes.

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in those with DM2 in both sexes, with a higher risk in men and in those with concomitant infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV): as in most epidemiological studies indicate a 2 to 3-fold increase in liver cancer in diabetic patients, diabetes may also act synergistically with other well-established risk factors for HCC, such as hepatitis B virus infection and HCV, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (also considered as a liver manifestation of diabetes and metabolic syndrome), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and chronic alcohol use leading to steatosis and cirrhosis.

In particular, it is unlikely that the mitogenic insulin pathway is involved considering that healthy liver cells, due to bursts of insulin secretion in the portal circulatory system, are physiologically exposed to higher insulin concentrations compared to other tissues. peripherals, especially those resistant to insulin. Type 2 hyperinsulinemia states (whereas in individuals with insulin-deficient DM1 treated with exogenous insulin, the liver is exposed to the same levels of insulin as the other organs).

In addition, in a large nested case-control study of liver cancer in patients with DM2, it was shown that the use of any antidiabetic medication was not favorably or adversely associated with liver carcinogenesis, although the use of metformin alone was associated with a protective effect, although not statistically significant, compared to non-use. In conclusion, the exact mechanisms underlying a putative oxidative stress condition remain controversial and the increased incidence of liver cancer is well documented among diabetic patients.

Most of the previous meta-analyses address diabetes as an independent risk factor for pancreatic cancer (18-20). A recent study shows that a 30% excess risk perseveres for more than two decades after diabetes diagnosis, secondary the causal role of diabetes in pancreatic carcinogenesis and also claiming that oral antidiabetics may lower risk, while insulin exhibits inconsistent duration. However, these studies are misleading as they do not distinguish between pre-existing and new-onset diabetes (possibly due to undiagnosed pancreatic cancer-causing functional damage). Furthermore, given the negative correlation of the duration of DM with the risk of pancreatic cancer (increased risk of cancer was found among the studies during the first year of follow-up and gradually decreased thereafter), the controversy about the causal role of diabetes has increased, generating the theory of reverse causality in which pancreatic cancer-induced a diabetic state regardless of smoking status or BMI.

Though, when epidemiological evidence suggests a reciprocal link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the temporal patterns of association and the causal link between the two were unclear. Though larger additional studies are needed to further examine the potential confounding effect of smoking and obesity on the connotation between diabetes and cancer, the unclear biological mechanisms underlying this association suggest that hyperinsulinemia is an Important key factor, as exocrine pancreatic cells are exposed to extremely high levels of insulin. concentrations due to common blood supply with adjacent insulin-secreting islets.

Treatment for diabetes and cancer

Some cancer treatments can affect your diabetes and make it harder to control blood glucose (blood sugar). In partnership with Macmillan, we have produced an informational brochure for anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer and is living with diabetes. With tips to help you cope with the side effects of cancer treatment, it is designed to help you deal with some of the questions or feelings you may have after diagnosis and during treatment.

Sometimes cancer treatment, especially steroids in high doses, can cause a person to develop diabetes. Organizations will vary liable on many factors such as age, weight, etc.

Reduce your risk of cancer

By maintaining a healthy weight for your height, eating right, staying active, and not smoking, you can help reduce your risk of developing cancer.

How can diabetes cause cancer?

Plumpness is a common risk factor for diabetes and cancer. Cancers consistently associated with obesity include breast, endometrium, pancreas, esophagus, kidney cells, colorectal cells, and liver. Weight loss may reduce the risk of cancer in obese subjects, although the effect is not marked. While bariatric surgery can reduce or even reverse the development of diabetes, the significant weight loss seen with bariatric surgery does not appear to reduce cancer risk as dramatically. The link between diabetes, obesity, and cancer may be mediated by insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis.

Insulin and IGF

Insulin is a growth factor, and elevated insulin levels have been shown to be a risk factor for several cancers. The meta-analysis shows an excess risk of colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancer associated with higher levels of circulating C-peptide / insulin and blood glucose markers. Elevated plasma insulin is also associated with poorer cancer outcomes and recurrence of the disease. Insulin itself exerts a mitogenic effect in various tissues, including breast cancer cell lines, which are estrogen receptor-positive. In breast cancer, insulin induces aromatase activity and reduces globulin sex hormone transporter (SHBG), which leads to increased levels of free estrogen, which in turn increases mitogenicity. Interestingly, breast cancer cells appear to have high levels of insulin receptors, compared to normal breast tissue.

Insulin can exert a mitogenic effect through receptors for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Prospective studies have shown that people with circulating IGF-1 are at increased risk for common epithelial cancers such as breast, colon, and prostate. A recent large-population survey showed that women with high levels of IGF-1 in their blood have more likely than those with low concentrations to develop breast cancer; Women with the highest concentration of IGF-1 were found to have a 28% higher risk of emerging breast cancer than women with the lowest attentiveness [OR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.14-1, 44)]. Hyperinsulinemia also produces reduced levels of IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), thus increasing levels of bioactive IGF-1.

Is diabetes associated with cancer?

Although diabetes and cancer are common conditions, they are diagnosed together more often in the same person than you might expect. Many epidemiological studies suggest a frequent coexistence of diabetes and cancer, a selection of which is tabulated in Table 1. Meta-analyzes suggest that several cancers, including liver, pancreas, endometrial, colorectal, breast, and bladder, are associated with diabetes (see below) and diabetes appears to protect against prostate cancer. Lung cancer appears not to be associated with diabetes, and the data are inconclusive for renal cell cancer and lymphoma.

General Topics

Types and treatment for psoriasis in children | Dermatology

What is psoriasis in children?

Psoriasis in children is a common, non-infectious skin condition. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis. This means that the skin cells are growing much faster than normal and should not fall off. Cells from on the surface of the skin, causing areas of thick, silver-red skin to form plaques. The plates are usually covered with thick, itchy, silver-white scales. The most active immune system is responsible for this process.

Plaque psoriasis can appear anywhere on your body, but it’s most common on the knees, skin, elbows, and torso.

Psoriasis can be passed from generation to generation. According to the national psoriasis foundation (NPF), if you or your child’s other parents have psoriasis, it can go as high as 10 percent for your child. If you and other parents of your child have a skin condition, your child’s chances of development will increase by 50 percent, perhaps even more.

Types of psoriasis in children

There are five types of psoriasis, but some are more common in children than others. These symptoms also appear differently in children. For example, they are more likely to develop psoriasis on the face or around the joints.

There are two main types of psoriasis in children:

  • Plaque psoriasis: Most children with psoriasis have this type. This causes dry, red patches called plaques. It also contributes to silver standards. Plaques or scales are commonly found on the knees, elbows, lower back, and scalp. They itch, redden, and sometimes hurt. They can also bleed. Plaque psoriasis patches in children are smaller, thinner, and less scaly than in adults.
  • Guttate psoriasis: This type is also known as “drop-shaped” psoriasis. It causes small red spots to form on the trunk, back, arms, and legs. It is more likely to be triggered by a strep infection. Many children with this type of psoriasis also develop plaque psoriasis.

Children under the age of 2 can have a psoriatic diaper rash. It occurs on the skin covered by the diaper. It may look like plaque psoriasis or cause a red, weeping rash. You can tell the difference between psoriatic diaper rash and regular diaper rash because psoriatic diaper rash does not get better with regular treatment for diaper rash.

Causes of psoriasis in children

Researchers haven’t been able to pinpoint the exact cause of psoriasis, but many agree that it has a strong genetic pattern. An individual can pass it on to their children through genes.

Beyond that, the researchers concluded that a dysfunction of the immune system can lead to the overproduction of skin cells, which can lead to plaques and lesions that cause psoriasis.

Some known triggers that can cause or worsen psoriasis for the first time are:

  • Stress
  • Throat or upper respiratory tract infection
  • Injury
  • Drugs

Psoriasis is not contagious and a child cannot pass it on to another child. Therefore, it is not necessary to avoid contact between children who have and do not have it. Instead, parents and guardians should encourage children to socialize with others, as this will help them build a support network and reduce feelings of loneliness.

Symptoms of psoriasis in children

The main symptoms of psoriasis in children are thick red patches of skin plaques. These can include burning, itching, or a sore throat. Oftentimes, silver scales cover the panels.

Plaques can appear anywhere. In children, they are more common in:

  • Face
  • On the scalp
  • Skin contact areas (such as where the arm is bent or in the armpit)
  • Diaper area (in children)

Other symptoms of psoriasis in children:

  • Dry, cracked skin can sometimes bleed
  • Thick and pitted nails
  • Arthritis (painful, stiff, and swollen joints)

Diagnosis of psoriasis in children

The doctor will examine your baby’s skin. Tell the healthcare provider:

  • When you first notice a skin problem
  • If it spills liquid or blood or is crusty
  • If it changes size, color, or shape
  • If your child has pain or itching

Tell your health care provider if your child has ever had skin cancer and if your family members have skin cancer.

Your child’s doctor will take a tissue (biopsy) from a mole or other skin marker that looks like cancer. The tissue is sent to the laboratory. A doctor called a pathologist looks at the tissue under a microscope. Other tests may be done to find out if you have cancer cells in the sample.

The biopsy results are ready in a few days or a week. Your child health care provider will notify you of the results. He or she will tell you about other tests that may be needed if cancer is found.

Treatment for psoriasis in children

Treating psoriasis in children can reduce the severity of inflammation and help with the stress that psoriasis has. However, before a child undergoes any treatment, their parents or guardians should discuss the risks and benefits with the treating physician or dermatologist and ask if it is medically necessary.

If the clothing covers a child’s wounds or if he or she does not feel discomfort as a result of the symptoms, treatment may not be necessary. Visible injuries can cause a child to become socially isolated, and the itching can lead to distraction at school. If the symptoms are affecting the child’s quality of life, treatment may be necessary.

Treatment options include:

  • Topical treatment
  • Phototherapy
  • Oral medications

People use topical therapy to treat most cases of psoriasis. This type of treatment includes medicated creams and lotions such as vitamin ‘D’ creams, moisturizers, and keratolytic lotions, which help a person cleanse dander, and topical corticosteroids.

Phototherapy involves the use of ultraviolet (UV) light focused on the skin and is generally recommended by doctors only for children older than 10 years. People with mild plaque or gout psoriasis respond better to phototherapy. Treatment is done two to three times a week in a hospital or dermatological clinic.

If the plaques or lesions don’t respond to other treatments, doctors sometimes prescribe oral medications to help treat psoriasis in children. These are systemic medications that directly treat specific parts of the immune system that address the root cause of psoriasis. Usually, people use them for moderate and intense performance and only take them for a short time. Doctors rarely prescribe them for psoriasis of the skin.

Department to consult for this condition

  • Department of dermatology
General Topics

Statistics of Cancer Survival Rate | Oncology

What is the cancer survival rate?

Cancer survival rate or survival statistics tell you the percentage of people who survive a certain type of cancer during a specific period of time. Cancer statistics often use an overall survival rate of five years.

The cancer survival rate is usually expressed in percentages. For example, the overall 5-year survival rate for bladder cancer is 77 percent. That means that of all the people who have bladder cancer, 77 out of 100 live five years after diagnosis. In contrast, 23 out of 100 die within five years of being diagnosed with bladder cancer.

Cancer survival rates are founded on research information calm on hundreds or thousands of people with specific cancer. An overall survival rate includes people of all ages and health conditions who have been diagnosed with their cancer, including those diagnosed too early and those diagnosed too late.

Your physician may be able to provide you with more specific statistics based on the stage of cancer. For example, 56 percentages, or just over half, of people diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer live at least five years after diagnosis. The five-year survival rate for people diagnosed with advanced-stage lung cancer that has spread (metastasized) to other areas of the body is 5 percent.

Overall survival rates do not specify whether cancer survivors are still in treatment at five years or whether they no longer have cancer (achieved remission). Other types of cancer survival rates that provide more specific information include:

  • Disease-free survival rate. This is the number of people who have no indication of cancer after treatment.
  • Progression-free survival rate. This is the number of people who have been treated for cancer and have no signs of cancer recurrence or who have cancer that has been stable without growing.

Cancer survival rates regularly use a five-year survival rate. That does not mean that cancer cannot come back after five years. Certain cancers can come back many years after they are first found and treated. For some cancers, if it hasn’t come back five years after the initial diagnosis, the chance that it will come back later is very small. Deliberately increase the risk of cancer coming back with your doctor.

How are cancer survival rates used?

You and your doctor can use cancer survival statistics to:

  • Understand your forecast. The experience of other people in the same situation can give you and your doctor an idea of ​​your prognosis – the chance that your cancer will be cured. Other factors include age and general health. Your doctor uses these factors to help her understand the severity of your condition.
  • Develop a treatment plan. Statistics can also show how people with the same type and stage of cancer respond to treatment. You can use this information, along with your treatment goals, to weigh the pros and cons of each treatment option.

For example, if two treatments give you similar chances of remission, but one has more side effects, you can choose the option with the fewest side effects.

In another example, a treatment may offer a chance for a cure, but only for 1 or 2 people out of 100. For some, these chances are promising enough to withstand the side effects. For others, the possibility of a cure does not outweigh the side effects of treatment.

Your physician can help you recognize the benefits and risks of each treatment.

Cancer survival rates in India is amongst the lowest in the world

The study by an international team of physicians followed cancer patients from 67 countries, including India, between 1995 and 2009. It was recently published in The Lancet medical journal.

The number of people who survive five years after being diagnosed with cancers of the digestive system appears to be particularly low in India compared to more advanced countries. Survival rates are only 19% for stomach cancer compared to 25-30% in most countries, and 58% survive in South Korea. In India, the colon cancer survival rate is 37%, while in most countries it is 50% to 59% and reaches 65% in the US. Only 4% of patients with liver cancer survive for five years in India compared to 10-20% elsewhere. Survival rates have been reduced for rectal cancer in India.

Even in breast and prostate cancers, where medical early payment has ensured that more than 80% of patients survive in advanced countries, only about 60% of Indian patients survive. Survival rates for ovarian cancer have decreased in India from 23% in 1995-99 to 14% in 2005-09. Cervical cancer survival rates are 46% compared to the global figure of 50%, but there is a slight decrease in India from 47% in 2005.

Michael Coleman, a lecturer at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and one of the study’s lead authors, told TOI that one of the explanations for the low survival rates in India could be that equitable access is not yet available. to early diagnosis and optimal treatment. for all the people of India.

Coleman said that out of 27 population-based cancer registries in India, only four participated in the study. These represent approximately 59 lakh population, which is approximately 0.5% of the population of India in 2009. However, this is not a small population sample and accurately represents the trajectory of cancer incidence and survival in these regions.

The study highlights a troubling question: Is India losing the fight against cancer? Coleman says Indian politicians should reflect on whether enough is being done for India’s growing number of cancer patients. It also emphasizes the importance of cancer registries because only then can a valid picture of the disease emerge.

“The total rate of the entire cancer registration process per listed patient, including the staff and equipment for data collection, analysis, and reporting, is probably less than the cost of a single chest X-ray. One thing is very clear: without cancer registries that are politically supported, operationally stable, and adequately funded and staffed to publish good data on a regular basis, any politician trying to make rational cancer rule is simply flying blind,” he claimed.

Poor and good cancer survivals  among the male population of northeast India

The Northeast region of India has an overall high incidence, mortality, and lowest cancer survival rate in the country; Cancer is expected to be diagnosed annually in this region of about 40,000 people a year. The cancer death rate in Northeast India is increasing mainly due to difficulties in accessing facilities for cancer diagnosis and treatment, socio-economic conditions, lack of awareness, taboo, misconceptions, and wide difference in both cancer diagnosis and treatment among the eight different states (regions) within Northeast India. Also, the affordability of cancer care remains a major challenge in this part of India for effective cancer control.

Objective: This study was conducted with the vision to provide insight into the cancer survival pattern of 45 million people living in the Northeast region of India with correlation with time in diagnosis and treatment competence status. Methods: All registered cases with a history of cancer between calendar years 2010-2014. The observed five-year survival was calculated based on the entire follow-up until 2017.

Three categories were made for the analysis of survival by treatment, 1) those who completed cancer treatment 2) those who did not complete treatment 3) those who did not take any targeted cancer treatment. The 5-year survival rates were generated using SPSS V19 software. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate the statistics. Results: The overall 5-year survival for all cancers in men is 24.3%, with an earlier stage at diagnosis and better survival (stage I, 52.1%) than at the later stage (stage IV, 18.8%) at the time of diagnosis. The full course of targeted cancer treatment was found to play an important role in improving the survival of patients.

Five-year survival for complete cancer-targeted therapy is 27.5%, followed by 12.5% ​​for incomplete therapy, and 8.5% for those without a cancer-targeted therapy group. The disparity in survival was seen between different cancer sites, as some cancers harm younger persons more than others. The 5-year survival observed for all sites ranged from 0% to 75.8%. Cancer of the liver (0%), pancreas (0%), lung (2.4%), gallbladder (7.9%), and stomach (10.3%) is considered more lethal than other cancers since Five-year survival was in the range of 0% -10%. Hodgkin lymphoma cancer (75.8%) has the highest five-year cancer survival rate, followed by testis (60.1%), male breast cancer (55.3%), penis (49, 7%), and skin cancer (49.1%).

The rate of prostate cancer (19.0%) is very low associated with other parts of the world where it reaches around 100% in many countries. Advances in early detection and treatment can improve cancer survival rates in these regions. Conclusion: The 5-year cancer survival showed an increase in survival with a decrease in stage at diagnosis and a decrease in the percentage decrease in the number of treatments among the Northeast population.