Types, Symptoms and Causes of Bullous Pemphigoid | Dermatology

What is bullous pemphigoid?

Bullous pemphigoid is a rare skin condition that usually affects middle-aged and older. The itching can lead to infections ranging from hives to large fluid-filled blisters. It affects a small area of ​​the body or is widespread. The blisters usually appear on the skin, under the armpits or on the abdomen. One-third of people with bullous pemphigoid develop blisters in the mouth, throat, and oesophagus, as well as on the skin. It occurs when your immune system attacks a thin layer of tissue under the outer layer of your skin.

The cause of this abnormal immune response is unknown, although it can sometimes be triggered by taking certain medications. Bullous pemphigoid often goes away on its own within a few months, but it can take up to five years to resolve. Treatment usually helps the blisters heal and reduce itching. These include corticosteroid medications, prednisone, and other medications that suppress the immune system. Bullous pemphigoid can be fatal, especially in the elderly who are already in poor health.

Types of pemphigoid

All types of pemphigoid are caused by the immune system attacking healthy tissue. They appear as rashes and fluid-filled blisters. The types of pemphigoid vary depending on where and when the blisters occur on the body.

Bullous pemphigoid

In bullous pemphigoid, the most common of the three types, blisters often appear on the skin of the hands and feet that cause movement. This includes the areas around the joints and abdomen.

Psychiatric pemphigoid

Scar pemphigoid, also known as mucous pemphigoid, refers to blisters that form on the mucous membrane. These include:

  • Mouth
  • Eyes
  • Nose
  • Throat
  • Genitals

The most commonly affected sites are the mouth and eyes. The rash and blisters start in one of these areas and spread to others if left untreated. If left untreated in the eyes, it can cause scarring, which can lead to blindness.

Pemphigoid pregnancy

When blisters occur during or shortly after pregnancy, it is called pemphigoid pregnancy. Although it is not related to the herpes virus, it was previously known as herpes zoster.

Blisters usually develop in the second or third trimester but can occur during pregnancy or up to six weeks after delivery. Blisters form on the arms, legs, and abdomen.

What are the symptoms of bullous pemphigoid?

The itch of bullous pemphigoid is characterized by multiple blisters called urticaria, like beetles and bullets. These are commonly seen:

  • Weapons
  • Legs.
  • Abdomen.
  • Groin.
  • Mouth.

The blisters can break open and become a sore or open sore. The fluid inside may be clear or contain some blood. The skin around the blisters appears normal or red. The blisters are usually along the folds of the skin. If you think you may have bullous pemphigoid, you should seek medical help from your healthcare provider.

Causes of bullous pemphigoid

Blisters are caused by a malfunction of your immune system. Your body’s immune system generally produces antibodies to fight bacteria, viruses, or other harmful foreign substances. For obviously unknown reasons, the body develops an antibody against a specific tissue in your body. In bullous pemphigoid, the immune system produces antibodies against the fibres that connect the outer layer of the skin (epidermis) and the next layer of skin (skin). These antibodies induce inflammation that produces itching of bullous and bullous pemphigoid.

Contributing factors

Bullous pemphigoid usually occurs randomly with no obvious factors for the onset of the disease. In some cases, these can be triggered by:

  • Drugs Prescription medications that cause bullous pemphigoid include etanercept (Enbrel), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), furosemide (Lasix), and penicillin.
  • Light and radiation. Ultraviolet light therapy to treat certain skin conditions can trigger bullous pemphigoid, while radiation therapy can be used to treat cancer.
  • Medical conditions Disorders that trigger bullous pemphigoid include psoriasis, lichen planus, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and multiple sclerosis.

Diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid

Your dermatologist will be able to diagnose your blisters very accurately by examining them. More evidence is needed to prescribe the appropriate treatment.

Your doctor may order a skin biopsy, which involves removing small samples of skin from the affected area. These samples are analyzed by laboratory technicians for antibodies characteristic of pemphigoid. These antibodies can also be found in your blood, so you must have a small blood sample.

Your doctor will usually start a test to find out if you have this disease by asking questions:

  • When are your features tight?
  • Do your blisters have pus or blood?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have you started any new medications?

Your doctor can run tests to confirm the diagnosis. These include blood tests and skin biopsy.

Bullous pemphigoid treatment

Treatment focuses on healing the skin and relieving itching, while at the same time reducing the negative side effects of the medications. Your doctor may prescribe one or a combination of medications:

  • Corticosteroids The most common treatment is prednisone, which comes in pill form. But long-term use increases the risk of weak bones, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and infections. Corticosteroid ointment can be rubbed on the affected skin and cause fewer side effects.
  • Steroid replacement medications. These drugs affect the immune system by blocking the production of white blood cells that fight your disease. Some examples are azathioprine (Azason, Imuran) and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept). If your signs and symptoms include eyes or upper GI tract, Ritu rituximab (Rituxan) may be used if other procedures do not help.
  • Other anti-inflammatory drugs. Methotrexate (Trexol) is one example.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you have this disease, you can take care of your condition with the following self-defence strategies.

  • Wound care. Follow your doctor’s advice for the daily care of blisters.
  • Limit activities if necessary. Blisters on the legs and arms make it difficult to walk or learn about daily activities. You will need to change your routine until the blisters are under control.
  • Keep out of sunlight. Avoid prolonged sun exposure to any area of ​​the skin affected by bullous pemphigoid.
  • Wear loose cotton clothing. Help protect your skin.
  • Watch what you eat. If you have blisters in your mouth, avoid eating hard, crunchy foods like potato chips and raw fruits and vegetables, as these types of foods can aggravate symptoms.

Types and Symptoms of Leukemia in Children | Oncology

What is leukemia in children?

Leukemia in children, the most common type of cancer in children and adolescents, is a cancer of the white blood cells. Irregular white blood cells form in the bone marrow. They travel rapidly through the bloodstream and crowd out healthy cells. This increases the body’s chances of getting infections and other problems.

As difficult as it may be for a child to get cancer, it is good to know that most children and adolescents with leukemia in children can be successfully treated.

Types of leukemia in children

Almost all belongings of leukemia in children are acute, which means they develop rapidly. A small number are chronic and develop slowly.

Types of leukemia in children include:

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): Also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia. ALL versions for 3 out of 4 cases of childhood leukemia.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): AML is the next most corporate type of childhood leukemia.
  • Leukemia of hybrid or mixed-lineage: This is occasional leukemia with features of both ALL and AML.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML): CML is rare in children.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): CLL is very rare in children.
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML): This is a rare type that is neither chronic nor acute and occurs most often in children younger than 4 years old.

Things that make childhood leukemia more likely

Doctors don’t know exactly what causes most childhood leukemia. But certain things can increase your chances of getting it. However, keep in mind that having one of these things does not necessarily mean that a child will get leukemia. In fact, most children with leukemia have no known risk factors.

The risk of childhood leukemia increases if your child has:

  • A genetic disorder such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Down syndrome, or Klinefelter syndrome
  • A genetic immune system problem, such as ataxia-telangiectasia
  • A brother or sister with leukemia, especially an identical twin
  • History of exposure to high levels of radiation, chemotherapy, or chemicals such as benzene (a solvent)
  • A history of immune system destruction, such as from an organ transplant

Although the risk is small, doctors say that children who have things that increase the likelihood of leukemia should have regular checkups to find any problems early.

Causes of leukemia in children

The exact cause of most childhood leukemias is unknown. Most children with leukemia do not have any well-known risk factors.

Still, scientists have learned that certain DNA changes within normal bone marrow cells can cause them to grow out of control and become leukemic cells. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which regulator how our cells work. We generally resemble our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But our genes affect us more than our appearance.

Some genes controller when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die at the right time:

  • Genes that help cells grow, divide, or stay animated are called oncogenes.
  • Genes that help keep cell partition under control or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

Cancers can be caused by DNA mutations (or other types of changes) that keep oncogenes turned on or turn off tumor suppressor genes. These genetic changes can be inherited from a parent (as is sometimes the case with childhood leukemias), or they can occur randomly during a person’s life if cells in the body make mistakes dividing to produce new cells.

Risk factors of leukemia in children

A risk factor is anything that affects how likely a person will get a disease such as cancer. Different types of cancer have different risk factors.

Lifestyle-related risk factors such as tobacco use, diet, body weight, and physical activity play a role in many adult cancers. But these factors often take many years to influence cancer risk, and they are not believed to play a significant role in childhood cancers, including leukemias.

There are some known risk factors for childhood leukemia, which include:

Genetic risk factors: Genetic risk factors are those that are part of our DNA (the material that makes up our genes). They are often inherited from our parents. While some genetic factors increase the risk of childhood leukemia, most leukemias are not related to any known genetic cause.

Genetic syndromes: Some genetic illnesses increase a child’s risk of developing leukemia

Down syndrome (trisomy 21): Kids with Down syndrome have an extra (third) copy of chromosome 21. They are much more likely to develop acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) than other children, with a general risk of about 2% to 3%. Down syndrome has also been linked to transient leukemia (also known as transient myeloproliferative illness), a disorder similar to leukemia during the first month of life, which often resolves on its own without treatment.

Li-Fraumeni syndrome: This is a rare inherited condition caused by a change in the TP53 gene. People with this change are at increased risk of developing several types of cancer, including leukemia, sarcomas of the bones or soft tissues, breast cancer, cancer of the adrenal glands, and brain tumors.

Symptoms of leukemia in children

Leukemia symptoms often prompt a visit to the doctor. This is good because it means that the disease can be detected earlier than it would otherwise. Early diagnosis can lead to more successful treatment.

Many signs and symptoms of childhood leukemia occur when leukemia cells crowd out normal cells.

Common symptoms include:

  • Fatigue or pale skin
  • Infections and fever
  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • Extreme fatigue or weakness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Cough

Other symptoms can include:

  • Bone or joint pain
  • Swelling in the abdomen, face, arms, armpits, sides of the neck, or groin
  • Swelling above the collarbone
  • Loss of appetite or weight loss.
  • Headaches, seizures, balance problems, or abnormal vision
  • Vomiting
  • Rashes
  • Gum problems

Diagnosis of leukemia in children

To diagnose childhood leukemia, the physician will take a complete medical history and perform a physical exam. The tests are used to diagnose childhood leukemia and classify its type.

Initial tests may include:

  • Blood tests to quantify the number of blood cells and see how they appear
  • Bone marrow ambition and biopsy, usually taken from the pelvic bone, to confirm a diagnosis of leukemia
  • Lumbar puncture, or lumbar puncture, to check the spread of leukemic cells in the fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord

A pathologist examines cells from blood tests under a microscope. This specialist also reviews bone marrow samples to determine the number of blood and fat-producing cells. Other tests may be done to help determine what type of leukemia your child may have. These tests also help doctors know how likely the leukemia is to respond to treatment.

Treatments for leukemia in children

Have an honest conversation with your child’s doctor and other members of the cancer care team about the best options for your child. Treatment depends mainly on the type of leukemia and other things.

Survival rates for most types of childhood leukemia have increased over time. And treatment in special centers for children and adolescents has the advantages of specialized care. Childhood cancers tend to respond to treatment better than adult cancers, and children’s bodies often tolerate treatment better.

Prevention of leukemia in children

There are very few known environmental or lifestyle-related causes of childhood leukemias, so it is important to know that in most cases there is nothing that these children or their parents could have done to prevent these cancers.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of pediatric oncology

Symptoms, Causes and Treatment for Cat Scratch Disease | Dermatology

What is cat scratch disease?

Cat scratch disease is an infection that can be contracted after cat scratches, bites, or bites. It is caused by bacteria in the saliva of cats. Cats contract bacteria from flies.

Cat scratch disease is also known as cat scratch fever. It is not a serious disease in healthy people. But it can be a problem for young children or those with weakened immune systems. Bacteria can pass from an infected cat to a human after the cat bites or scratches human skin, pressing on the open wound or breaking the skin’s surface. Cats under one year of age are more likely to scratch, which increases the risk of infection. A cat with this type of bacteria can contract it by pressing, biting, or scratching an open wound on its skin.

Cat scratch fever, also known as cat scratch disease (SAD), is more common in children and teens.

Symptoms of cat-scratch disease

A red bump, sore throat, or blister may appear where the cat bit or scratched you. This can happen 3 to 10 days after a bite or scratch. The sore or blister takes a long time to heal. You may experience a low fever (less than 102 ° F), headache, fatigue, or decreased appetite.

A lymph node infection can also develop. It occurs most often in glands that are close to scratching or biting. If the scratch is on your hand, the glands in the armpit or near the elbow may become soft and swollen.

Call your GP if you notice any of the following problems:

  • Untreated cat scratches or bites.
  • The red area around the cat’s scratch or bite persists for more than 2 days after injury.
  • Fever that lasts for several days after a cat scratch or bites.
  • Painful and swollen lymph nodes for more than 2 to 3 weeks.
  • Bone or joint pain, abdominal pain (without fever, vomiting, or diarrhoea), or fatigue for more than 2 to 3 weeks.

What causes cat scratch disease?

You can get cat scratch fever from bites or scratches from an infected cat. You can also get the disease if saliva from an infected cat gets into an open wound or touches the whites of your eyes. Occasionally, you can get the disease from flies or a bacteria-carrying tick. You cannot get cat scratch disease from another human being.

About 40% of cats and kittens carry Bartonella tensile in their mouths or under their paws. They get it by scratching or biting infected flies. They can also get it by fighting other cats that have it.

Most infected cats have no symptoms. But in severe cases, they may have difficulty breathing or land with infections in the mouth, eyes, or urinary tract.

If bitten or scratched while Bartonella Hensley breaks down the cat’s fur, the bacteria can enter its body. It can also become infected if the cat grabs its throat, wound, or scab.

Who is at risk of cat scratch disease?

 Anyone who owns or contacts a cat is at risk for cat scratch fever.

The CDC reports that cat scratch fever is most common in the southern United States and is most common in children ages 5 to 9. Those admitted to the hospital were more likely to be men than women, although the majority of those diagnosed were women.

If you have a weakened immune system, you are at risk of becoming seriously ill from cat scratch fever. People who fall into this category are pregnant or living:

  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • HIV or AIDS
  • Organ transplant


If your doctor thinks you have cat scratch fever, he or she will perform a physical exam. Cat scratch is difficult to diagnose from fever symptoms alone. Your doctor can make an accurate diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) blood test to find out if you have the B. bacteria therefore in your body. Diagnosis is based on a complete history, which includes a history drawn by the cat or kitten, a physical exam, and sometimes blood tests.

How is cat scratch disease treated?

Cat scratch fever is not usually serious and does not usually require treatment. Antibiotics can treat people with cat scratch fever or a weakened immune system. Azithromycin (Zithromax) is used to rapidly shrink the lymph nodes. Usually, it is prescribed for five days. Other antibiotics that are sometimes used to treat cat scratch fever infections:

  • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  • Rifampicin (Rifadin)
  • Tetracycline (sumac)
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (bacteria, Septra)

The treatment time and the dose of these antibiotics vary according to each clinical case but range from five days to two weeks. Talk to your doctor about drug interactions. Interactive interactions are also possible if you drink alcohol.

The blister or lump lasts between one and three weeks. Swollen lymph nodes usually take two to four months to go away, but can last six months to a year or more. They can also cause other problems.

Your healthcare provider will find the best treatment based on:

  • How old are you?
  • All your medical and health history
  • How sick are you
  • To what extent can you administer specific medications, procedures, or treatments
  • How long is this situation expected to last?
  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

Antibiotics (to treat infections)

Looking for symptoms caused by an infection. In most cases, antibiotics are not needed and the infection goes away on its own.


Most healthy people do not have a problem with cat scratch fever. However, people with weakened immune systems (people with HIV / AIDS, people receiving chemotherapy, or people with diabetes) may have problems with:

Bacillary angiomatosis. The skin disorder is surrounded by raised red lesions. This condition can develop into a more generalized disorder that affects internal organs.

Conjunctivitis (pink eye), fever, and swollen lymph nodes in front of the ear on the same side with a red, irritated, and painful eye condition

How can cat scratch fever be prevented?

You can prevent cat scratch fever by avoiding contact with cats. If you have a cat, avoid rough play that could lead to scratching or biting. You can trim their nails to reduce scratches. Washing your hands after playing with your cat can also help prevent illness. Do not allow your cat to press or scratch your eyes, mouth, or open wounds. You and your pets should also stay away from kittens.

Keep your cat indoors and give him antifungal medications to reduce the risk of infection. Check your cat with a flea comb and control flies in your home with frequent vacuuming. If necessary, a pest control agency can remove the flies from your home.

Because small cats and kittens are more likely to carry the disease, people with weakened immunity can reduce their risk of contracting the disease by adopting an older cat instead of a kitten.

When should I call a doctor?

Many cases of cat scratch fever resolve on their own, but in some cases, they still require a doctor. If you or your child are bitten or bitten by a cat, call a doctor, and experience these symptoms:

  • Swollen or painful lymph nodes
  • The wound doesn’t seem to heal after a few days.
  • The redness spreads around the wound.
  • The fever comes a few days after the bite.

If you’ve already been diagnosed with cat scratch fever, you should call your doctor as soon as possible if you experience:

  • Increased pain in the lymph nodes
  • High fever
  • Feeling sick
  • New features

Symptoms and Causes of Pemphigus Vulgaris | Dermatology

What is pemphigus vulgaris?

Pemphigus Vulgaris is a rare and serious autoimmune disorder in which blisters of various sizes form on the skin and the lining of the mouth and other mucous membranes. It affects the mouth, nose, throat, eyes, and genitals. Pemphigus Vulgaris is the most usual type of pemphigus.

Who gets Pemphigus Vulgaris?

Pemphigus Vulgaris affects people of all races, ages, and genders. It usually appears between the ages of 30 and 60 and is more common in Jews and Indians than other races, probably due to genetic factors.

Drug-induced pemphigus has also been recognized and is most usually generated by penicillamine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and cephalosporins.

Pemphigus is sometimes caused by cancer (paraneoplastic pemphigus), infection, or injury.

Causes of Pemphigus Vulgaris

Pemphigus Vulgaris is not fully understood. Experts believe that a person with a genetic predisposition to this condition is induced when they come into contact with an environmental trigger, such as a chemical or drug. In some cases, Pemphigus Vulgaris goes away after the trigger is removed.

This condition causes the immune system to fight against the body’s cells and attack germs. With Pemphigus Vulgaris, the immune system looks for proteins that bind to skin cells. This causes fluid to form between skin cells, causing blisters. Experts hope that this condition will combat healthy proteins.

Symptoms of Pemphigus Vulgaris

About 50% of people with this disease first develop painful blisters and sores in the mouth. This is followed by blisters on the skin. Dermatitis may not occur.

Dermatitis can be described as:

  • Drying
  • Oozing
  • Scabs
  • Easily peeled or peeled off

They may be:

  • In the mouth and under the throat
  • On the skin, trunk, or other areas of the skin

Diagnosis of Pemphigus Vulgaris

The diagnosis may not be clear at first. There are other causes of mouth ulcers and skin blisters. So if your doctor suspects you have this disease, they will refer you to a dermatologist. Tests are usually done to confirm the diagnosis. Besides these:

  • A small sample (biopsy) of the skin may be taken. It is viewed under a microscope and examined to confirm that the blisters are caused by Pemphigus Vulgaris.
  • Blood test for antibodies. It uses methods called immunofluorescence or Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the level of antibodies in the bloodstream that causes Pemphigus Vulgaris. In addition to helping to diagnose the disease, the level of autoantibodies in the blood gives a good indication of how active the disease is. Measured from time to time to monitor how well the treatment is working. When the level of antibodies decreases, the disease becomes less active.

Treatment for Pemphigus Vulgaris

People with moderate to severe illnesses are hospitalized. In the hospital, raw skin surfaces require extraordinary care, similar to that given to people with severe burns. Antibiotics may be needed to treat infections in broken blisters. The dressing protects the raw soluble areas.

  • Corticosteroids (oral or intravenous)
  • Antibiotics and protective dressings for ruptured blisters
  • Often immunosuppressants or immune globulin to decrease corticosteroid use

High doses of corticosteroids are essential for treatment. They can be taken orally (orally) or intravenously (intravenously) if the person is hospitalized. If the disease is controlled, the dose of corticosteroids is gradually reduced (damaged). It is sometimes given with corticosteroids called rituximab, which suppress the immune system (immunosuppressant).

Immunosuppressive medications such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, or rituximab (if not already given) may also be given if the person does not respond to treatment or if the disease worsens when the dose is damaged. Immunosuppressive medications may also be given to reduce the need for corticosteroids in people who need corticosteroids for a long time or in high doses.

Intravenous immune globulin is another treatment used for acute pemphigus Vulgaris. Some respond well to discontinuation of drug treatment, while others may need to continue taking higher doses of the drug. People with severe Pemphigus Vulgaris also undergo a plasma transplant, in which antibodies are filtered from the blood.


Potential pemphigus complications:

  • Infection of your skin
  • An infection that spreads to the bloodstream (sepsis)
  • Malnutrition, because painful sores in the mouth make it difficult to eat
  • Side effects like high blood pressure and infections
  • Death, if certain types of pemphigus are not treated


Without systemic corticosteroid treatment, It is usually fatal, usually within 5 years of disease onset. Systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies have a better prognosis, but complications from treatment can lead to death.


Risks and Causes of Hodgkin Lymphoma in children | Oncology

What is Hodgkin lymphoma in children?

Hodgkin lymphoma in children starts in the lymphatic system, the network of vessels that run through the body and carry fluid that contains white blood and other important cells of the immune system. Lymph nodes respond to infections by releasing white blood cells called lymphoid cells into the bloodstream to fight them. When someone has lymphoma, many abnormal lymphoid cells or lymphomas are produced within a particular lymph node.

These are the same cells that become cancerous in people who have leukemia, another form of blood cancer. The difference is that leukemia develops in the bone marrow and affects the normal production of blood cells. Lymphoma, on the other hand, develops in the lymphatic system and does not affect the normal production of blood cells.

In patients with lymphoma, cancer cells clump together in the lymph nodes and form tumors. These cells can also spread to the bloodstream and spread cancer throughout the body, including to other lymph nodes.

Hodgkin lymphoma tends to affect the lymph nodes in the head and neck, while Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can affect any lymph node or related tissue in the body.

Causes of Hodgkin lymphoma in children

Normally speaking, childhood cancer, like adult cancer, is caused by the uncontrolled repetition of our body’s own cells. In a healthy body, cells grow and divide only when necessary to replace old or damaged cells. When cancer develops, old cells do not die, and/or new cells grow when they are not needed.

As these new cells divide without stopping, they can develop into a tumor or another form of cancer. Hodgkin lymphoma in children, which accounts for about 6% of all childhood cancers diagnosed in the United States, is a form of cancer that usually begins in white blood cells that the body uses to fight viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders.

Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma in children

Hodgkin lymphoma in children is a cancer of the lymphatic system, the most common symptom is one or more swollen lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are bean-sized clusters of lymphatic tissue in the neck, armpit, chest, and groin. A lump in one of these areas that does not go away over time increases in size, and/or spreads to additional areas of the body can be an indicator of Hodgkin lymphoma in children.

Swollen lymph nodes caused by Hodgkin lymphoma in children are usually not painful or uncomfortable. However, swollen lymph nodes in the chest can press on the lungs and/or windpipe (windpipe), causing coughing or shortness of breath, especially when lying down.

However, it is important to note that most swollen lymph nodes are caused by infection, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as the lymph nodes are responsible for filtering the lymph in the blood responsible for fighting viruses and bacteria in the body. Swollen lymph nodes caused by an infection are usually uncomfortable or painful to the touch and will return to normal size once the infection is under control.

Other symptoms of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma include:

  • Skin itch
  • General fatigue
  • Fever of unknown cause (not related to infection)
  • Unexplained weight loss/anorexia (10% of body weight in the 6 months before diagnosis)
  • Night sweats

Three of these symptoms (unexplained fever, unexplained weight loss, and deep night sweats) are classified as B symptoms and are used to determine the “stage” of the disease as well as to assign risk. In general, patients with B symptoms are at higher risk and therefore require a more intensive treatment protocol.

The different types of childhood cancers:

  • Childhood brain tumor cancer (brain stem tumors)
  • Spinal cord tumor cancer
  • Childhood neuroblastoma cancers
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma Cancers
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cancers
  • Wilms tumor (kidney tumors)
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Bone cancer (including osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma)
  • Leukemia cancers: Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL), Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)
  • Hepatoblastoma (liver cancer)
  • Rhabdoid tumors

Diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma in children

Symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma in children include persistent swelling (lasting a few weeks) of a single lymph gland, usually in the neck, armpit, or groin. Coughing or shortness of breath may occur if the glands in the chest are affected. Fever, sweating, itching, and weight loss can also occur. The exact diagnosis will be established by removing part or all of an affected lymph gland so that the cells can be inspected in the laboratory.

This is known as a biopsy and is usually done under general anesthesia. More tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs, and Blood tests are done to determine the exact size and position of the lymphoma and whether it has spread. This is known as staging.

Hodgkin lymphoma can be defined as stages 1, 2, 3, or 4, followed by A or B.

  • Stage 1: One area of ​​the lymph nodes is affected in one place (either above or below the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity).
  • Stage 2: Indicates that two or more areas are affected but, again, only above or below the diaphragm.
  • Stage 3: Involves the lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm and possibly the spleen as well.
  • Stage 4: Hodgkin lymphoma is the worst stage because it means that cancer has spread (to the liver, lungs, or bone marrow).
  • A or B: Is added to the number to indicate if there are symptoms of systemic Hodgkin lymphoma (fever, weight loss, night sweats). A is used when there are none of these symptoms. B means that the symptoms are present and this implies that the child is worse and needs more treatment.

Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma in children

The main treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma is chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is also sometimes required. If cancer has not spread beyond its original site, radiation therapy alone may be used after surgery to remove the affected lymph nodes. The type and amount of treatment given depend on the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis.

When chemotherapy is used, it is usually given every few weeks for several months.

When radiation therapy is used, it is usually given for a few minutes each day for a period of two to four weeks. Treatment can last from a few months to two years, liable on the exact type of lymphoma and the stage to which it has proceeded.

Side effects and complications of Hodgkin lymphoma in children

Treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma often causes side effects. These will depend on the particular treatment used and the part of the body being treated, but may include:

  • Hair loss
  • fatigue
  • Nausea
  • vomiting
  • Reduced resistance to infection
  • Bruising and bleeding
  • Diarrhea

A small number of children can develop late side effects, sometimes many years later, caused by lymphoma treatment. The main risks arise from the use of radiation therapy, which can affect growth and cause infertility. The risk of infertility is higher among children and the risk increases if both radiation therapy and chemotherapy are used. There is a risk of hypothyroidism associated with irradiation to the neck.

Both radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been associated with heart and lung complications. There is an increased risk of second cancers in those who survive childhood cancer, which is believed to be associated with the treatments used.

Your child’s doctor will explain the possible risks of any given treatment before starting treatment. Every effort will be made to minimize the risk of these types of complications.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma be prevented?

Most children diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma have no risk factors or lifestyle issues that could have been changed in any way to avoid the development of this disease. While it is entirely natural and very common to search for a cause or somewhat to blame when a child is diagnosed with NHL (or any type of cancer), parents and guardians must know that there is nothing that they could have done differently to prevent this disease.

There are two notable exceptions. First, a small percentage of diagnoses are associated with a compromised immune system such as HIV infection. HIV-positive mothers are refreshed to take active steps during and after pregnancy to reduce the risk of temporary HIV along to their children.

Second, NHL may develop as second cancer stopping from a prior cancer treatment or immune-suppressing drugs taken to enable an organ transplant. Clearly, in these cases, the small risk of developing NHL in the future must be weighed against the need to treat a possibly life-threatening disease in the present.