Types and Procedures of Echocardiogram | Oncology

What is an echocardiogram?

An echocardiogram (echo) is a graphic diagram of the heart’s movement. During an echo test, ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) from a pointer held stick placed on your chest provides images of the heart valves and chambers and helps the sonographer assess the pumping action of the heart. Echo is often joint with doppler ultrasound and colour doppler to assess blood flow through the heart valves.

Why is an echocardiogram performed?

The test is used to:

  • Assess your overall heart function
  • Regulate the presence of many types of heart disease, such as valve disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, infective endocarditis, cardiac masses, and congenital heart disease.
  • Follow the growth of valve disease over time
  • Evaluate the efficiency of your medical or surgical treatments

Why do I need an echocardiogram?

Your doctor may order an echocardiogram to:

  • Look for heart disease
  • Manage heart valve disease over time
  • See how well medical or surgical treatments are occupied

The reason why it is done?

Your doctor may suggest an echocardiogram to:

  • Check for difficulties with the valves or chambers of your heart.
  • Check to see if heart problems are the cause of symptoms like shortness of breath or chest pain.
  • Finding congenital heart defects before birth (fetal echocardiogram)
  • The type of echocardiogram you have to be contingent on the information your doctor needs.

Transthoracic echocardiogram

In this type of standard echocardiogram:

  • A technician (sonographer) feasts gel onto a device (transducer).
  • The sonographer presses the transducer firmly against your skin, directing an ultrasound beam through your chest toward your heart.
  • The transducer records the echoes of the sound waves from your heart.
  • A computer changes the echoes into moving images on a monitor.

If your lungs or ribs block your view, you may need a small amount of an enhancing agent injected through an intravenous (IV) line. The ornamental agent, which is generally safe and well-tolerated, will make the structures of your heart show up more clearly on a monitor.

Transesophageal echocardiogram

If your physician wants more detailed imageries or it is difficult to get a clear image of your heart with a standard echocardiogram, your doctor may recommend a transesophageal echocardiogram.

In this procedure:

  • Your throat will be numb and medicine will be given to help you relax.
  • A flexible tube containing a transducer is guided down the throat into the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach (esophagus).
  • The transducer records sound waves echoes from your heart.
  • A computer converts the echoes into full moving images of your heart, which your doctor can view on a display.

Doppler echocardiogram

Sound waves alteration pitch when they bounce off blood cells that move through the heart and blood vessels. These changes (Doppler signals) can help your doctor measure the speed and direction of blood flow in your heart.

Doppler methods are generally used in transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. Doppler techniques can also be used to monitor blood flow and blood pressure problems in the arteries of the heart, which traditional ultrasound may not detect. The blood flow displayed on the monitor is coloured to help your doctor identify any problems.

Stress echocardiogram

Some heart problems, particularly those that affect the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries), occur only during physical activity. Your doctor may mention a stress echocardiogram to check for coronary artery problems. However, an echocardiogram cannot provide information about blockages in the arteries of the heart.

In a stress echocardiogram:

  • Ultrasound pictures of your heart are taken before and immediately after walking on a treadmill or riding an exercise bike.
  • If you are incapable to exercise, you may receive an injection of medicine to make your heartbeat as hard as if you were exercising.

What are the risks?

  • An echo can’t hurt you.
  • An echo fixes not hurt and has no side effects.

How do I prepare for the echo?

You don’t have to do anything special. You can eat and drink before the test as you normally would.

“While I was lying on my side, the technician asked me to move a little while moving the wand around my chest. It was really easy and it didn’t hurt one bit! “.

What happens during the echocardiogram?

Echo tests are performed by specially trained technicians. You may be tested in your doctor’s office, an emergency room, an operating room, a clinic, or a hospital room. The test takes about an hour.

  • You lie on a table and a technician places small metal discs (electrodes) on your chest. The discs have cables that connect to an EKG machine. An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) tracks your heartbeat during the test.
  • The room is dark so your specialist can better see the video monitor.
  • Your technician places gel on your chest to help the sound waves pass through your skin.
  • Your technician may ask you to move or hold your breath briefly to get better images.
  • The probe (transducer) is passed through your chest. The probe crops sound waves that bounce off your heart and “echo” back to the probe.
  • Sound waves are transformed into images and displayed on a video monitor. The images on the video monitor are recorded so that your doctor can view them later.

“The physician had a portable machine that he brought to my hospital bed. He turned the camera and stopped it several times so he could show me the images of my heart. I could see the valves in my heart opening and closing. ”

What happens after the echo?

  • Your technician will help you clean the gel from your chest.
  • Your doctor will speak with you after observing your echo images and discuss what the images show.

Echocardiogram procedure

An echocardiogram is an outpatient or consultative procedure. Electrodes are placed on the chest wall to monitor the heart rate and rhythm. The lights in the room can be dimmed to help view the images on the computer monitor. If a contrast medium is used, an IV will need to be started.

In the transthoracic echocardiogram, it will be necessary to expose the patient’s chest. The technician will press the transducer or probe firmly against the chest wall to obtain images of the heart. The patient may be asked to roll onto their left side and take a deep breath to help the probe better “see” the heart. The patient will be monitored due to the need for IV sedation.

A heart monitor and an oxygen monitor will be put on; Supplemental oxygen is usually provided through tips placed in the nose and an IV is started. Once sedated, the cardiologist will pass a tube, with the transducer at its tip, through your mouth and place it in the esophagus at a level close to the heart. The patient may or may remember the procedure because many of the sedative medications have an amnesic effect; but once the patient is fully awake, they can be discharged home with a companion.

How the test will feel?

During the exam:

  • You will remove your clothing from the waist up and lie on your back on an exam table.
  • Electrodes will be located on your chest to monitor your heartbeat.
  • A small amount of gel will be spread on your chest and the transducer will move over your skin. You will feel a slight pressure on your chest from the transducer.
  • You may be asked to breathe in a certain way or to roll over on your left side. Sometimes an unusual bed is used to help you stay in the proper position.
  • If you are having a TEE, you will receive some sedative (relaxant) medications before the tube is inserted, and numbing liquid may be sprayed on the back of your throat.

Alternative names

  • Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE)
  • Echocardiogram – transthoracic
  • Doppler ultrasound of the heart
  • Superficial echo

Other types of echocardiogram

There are also several other types of echocardiography that can be done:

  • Dissimilarity echocardiogram, in which a harmless substance called a contrast agent is injected into the bloodstream before an echocardiogram is performed; this substance shows up clearly on the scan and can help generate a better image of your heart

The type of echocardiogram that will be done depends on the heart condition being evaluated and how detailed the images need to be. For example, a stress echo may be suggested if your heart problem is caused by physical activity, while the more detailed images produced by a TOE may be more helpful in helping to plan heart surgery.


Risk factors, Procedure and Preparation for Pap Test | Oncology

What is the Pap test?

A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a procedure to test for cervical cancer in women. A Pap smear involves collecting cells from your cervix — the lower, narrow end of your uterus that’s at the top of your vagina.

During the routine procedure, cells from your cervix are gently scraped away and examined for abnormal growth. The procedure is done at your doctor’s office. It may be mildly uncomfortable, but doesn’t usually cause any long-term pain.

Why is the pap smear done?

Uterine cells are smeared to detect changes before they become cancerous. If you have cancer, finding it early will give you the best chance of fighting it. If you don’t, the early detection of cell changes can help prevent cancer from developing.

Women ages 21 to 65 should have a daily Pap test. How often you do this depends on your general health and whether or not you’ve had an abnormal smear in the past.

Who needs a pap test?

Current Guidelines The trusted source recommends that women get regular pap smears every three years starting at age 21. Some women have a higher risk of cancer or infections. You may need frequent tests:

  • You are HIV positive
  • You have a weakened immune system from chemotherapy or organ transplantation.
  • If you are over 30 years old and have not had abnormal Pap tests, ask your doctor once every five years if the test is combined with the detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • HPV is a virus that causes acne and increases the risk of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 are the main causes of cervical cancer. If you have HPV, you are at risk for cervical cancer.
  • Women over 65 with a history of normal Pap smear results may stop having the test in the future.
  • Regardless, you should have regular pap smears based on your age, regardless of your sexual activity status. This is because the HPV virus has been inactive for years and suddenly becomes active.

Who can consider stopping the pap test?

In some cases, a woman and her doctor may decide to end the Pap test, namely:

  • After total cervical surgery:  After all cervical surgery, that is, surgical removal of the uterus, including the uterus, ask your doctor if you need to continue having Pap tests.
  • If your cervical surgery is done for a non-cancer condition, such as cervical fibroids, you can stop regular smears.
  • If your uterus is due to a pre-existing or cancerous uterine condition, your doctor may recommend that you continue with a routine Pap smear.
  • Aging: Doctors generally agree that women should stop routine pop testing at age 65 if previous tests for cervical cancer are negative.
  • Discuss your options with your doctor and decide what is best for you based on your risk factors. If you are sexually active with multiple partners, your doctor may recommend that you continue with the pop test.

Risk factors

The Pap test is the safest way to get tested for cervical cancer. However, the pap smear is not foolproof. It is possible to get false-negative results, even if you have abnormal cells, the test does not indicate the abnormality.

A false negative result does not mean that a mistake was made. Factors that can lead to a false-negative result:

  • Inadequate cell collection
  • An abnormal number of cells
  • Blood or inflammatory cells hide abnormal cells.

Although abnormal cells are more likely to go unnoticed, time is on your side. Cervical cancer takes many years to develop. And if one test does not find abnormal cells, the next will most likely be done.

How often should I have a Pap test?

The test should be done every 3 years for people 21 to 65 years old. You can choose to have a Pap test for human papillomavirus (HPV) starting at age 30. If you do, you may be tested once every 5 years. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and is associated with cervical cancer.

If you have some health problems, your doctor may recommend that you have frequent outbursts. Some of them are:

  • A Pap test that reveals cervical cancer or early cells
  • HIV infection
  • Immunosuppression from organ transplantation, chemotherapy, or chronic corticosteroid use
  • You were exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) before you were born.
  • Talk to your doctor if you have questions or problems. They will definitely let you know.

Preparation of pap test

You should not have a pap smear during your period. Excessive bleeding affects the accuracy of the test. If your exam is scheduled for that time of the month, ask your doctor if you can reschedule it.

To get the most accurate pap smear, doctors recommend taking the following steps, 48 ​​hours before testing.

  • Don’t have sex or use lubricants.
  • Do not use sprays or powders near the vagina.
  • Do not insert anything into the vagina, including tampons, medications, creams, and suppositories.
  • Do not clean the vagina with water, vinegar, or other liquid (douche).

What happens during a pap test?

Pap smears can be a bit uncomfortable, but the test is very quick. During the procedure, you stretch your legs out on the exam table, and your feet are called stirrups. Your doctor will slowly insert a device called a speculum into your vagina. This device keeps the vaginal walls open and provides access to the uterus.

Your doctor will remove a small sample of cells from your cervix. Here are some ways your doctor can take this sample:

  • Some use a tool similar to a spatula.
  • Some use a spatula and a brush.
  • Others use a tool called a cytobrush, which is a combination of a spatula and brush.
  • Most women experience a slight push and irritation during a brief scraping.
  • The sample of cells from your uterus is kept and sent to the laboratory to test for abnormal cells.

After the pap smear

  • After your pap smear, you can learn about your day without limits.
  • Depending on the type of pop test you are doing, your doctor will transfer the sample of cells collected from your uterus to a container that contains a special liquid for storage on a sample (liquid-based pap test) or glass slide (smear traditional pop).
  • The samples are transferred to a laboratory where they are examined under a microscope to look for symptoms in the cells that indicate cancer or a pre-existing condition.
  • After the test, you may feel mild discomfort or numbness from scratching. You may also experience very light vaginal bleeding immediately after the test. Inform your doctor if discomfort or bleeding persists after the day of the test.
  • Ask your doctor when to expect your test results.


A Pap smear will alert your doctor to the presence of suspicious cells that need further testing.

Normal results

If only normal cervical cells are found during your pop smear, it is said to have a negative result. You do not need further treatment or exam until your next Pap smear and pelvic exam.

Abnormal results

If abnormal or abnormal cells are found during your pop smear, you will get a positive result. A positive result does not mean that you have cervical cancer. A positive result depends on the type of cells found in your test.

Here are some rules your doctor can use and what your next step is:

  • Diversified squamous cells (ASCUS) of undetermined importance. Squamous cells are thin and flat and grow on a healthy cervical surface. In the case of ASCUS, the Pap test reveals slightly abnormal squamous cells, but the changes do not clearly indicate the presence of precursor cells.
  • With liquid-based tests, your doctor can re-evaluate the sample for the presence of certain types of viruses known to promote the development of cancer, such as human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • In the absence of high-risk viruses, the abnormal cells found as a result of the test are not of great concern. If there are viruses that cause concern, you may need more tests.
  • Squamous intraepithelial lesion. The term is used to indicate that cells taken from a Pap smear may be premature.
  • If the changes are low-grade, the size, shape, and other characteristics of the cells indicate that it takes several years for them to become cancerous.
  • If the changes are high-grade, the lesion is more likely to turn into cancer very quickly. Additional diagnostic tests are required.
  • Atypical gland cells. Glandular cells make mucus and grow at the beginning of your uterus and in your uterus. Heterogeneous gland cells may appear a bit abnormal, but it is not clear if they are cancerous.
  • More tests are needed to determine the origin of the abnormal cells and their importance.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma cells. This result means that the cells collected for the pop smear look very abnormal, making it almost certain that the pathologist has cancer.
  • “Squamous cell cancer” refers to cancers that arise in cells on the flat surface of the vagina or uterus. “Adenocarcinoma” refers to cancers that arise in the glandular cells. If such cells are found, your doctor will recommend a quick evaluation.
  • If your Pap test is abnormal, your doctor may perform a procedure called colposcopy using a special loupe (colposcope) to examine the tissues of the uterus, vagina, and vulva.
  • Your doctor can take a biopsy of any abnormal areas. The tissue sample is sent to the laboratory for analysis and an accurate diagnosis.

Symptoms and Treatment of Pemphigoid | Dermatology

What is pemphigoid?

Pemphigoid is a family of rare autoimmune diseases that causes blisters and rashes on the skin and mucous membranes. The body mistakenly sends antibodies to bind to skin cells. These antibodies set off a chain reaction that separates the lower layer of cells from the upper layers.

The condition can affect people of any age, but it tends to affect older adults. It can also develop during pregnancy or from the use of certain types of medications and therapies. While there is currently no cure for this disease, there are several treatment options.


All types of pemphigoid are caused by the immune system of aggressive healthy tissue. They appear as rashes and fluid-filled blisters. The types of pemphigoid differ in terms of where on the body the blisters occur and when they occur.

Bullous pemphigoid

In bullous pemphigoid, the most common of the three types, blistering of the skin most often occurs on the arms and legs, where movement occurs. This includes the areas around the joints and in the lower abdomen.

Scar pemphigoid

Scar pemphigoid, also called mucosal pemphigoid, refers to blisters that form on the mucous membranes. This includes:

  • Mouth
  • Eyes
  • Nose
  • Throat
  • Genitals

The most commonly affected sites are the mouth and eyes. The rash and blisters can start in one of these areas and spread to the others if left untreated. If left untreated in the eyes, it can cause scarring, which in turn can lead to blindness.

Gestational pemphigoid

When blisters form during or shortly after pregnancy, it is called gestational pemphigoid. It used to be called herpes gestationis, although it is not related to the herpes virus.

Blisters usually develop during the second or third trimester but can occur at any time during pregnancy or up to six weeks after delivery. Blisters incline to form on the arms, legs, and abdomen.


Pemphigoids are not genetic (inherited), though there may be a genetic predisposition to developing the disease. A person who is hereditarily predisposed to a disorder carries a gene for the disease, but it may not be spoken unless it is triggered or “activated” in certain circumstances, for example, due to particular environmental factors. Currently, it is not possible to predict who can get these diseases.


It can present with itching, hive-shaped welts, and multiple blisters, called blisters. These are most often seen in:

  • Arms
  • Legs
  • Abdomen
  • Groin
  • Mouth

The blisters can break open and become an open sore or ulcer. The fluid inside may be clear or contain some blood. The skin around the blisters may look normal or red. The blisters are usually located along the folds of the skin. You should seek medical courtesy from your healthcare provider if you think you might have bullous pemphigoid.


If there are characteristic blisters, doctors often diagnose bullous pemphigoid using a skin biopsy. For more unusual cases, such as those causing itchy rash without blisters, blood tests may also be required.

A doctor may order a biopsy to diagnose bullous pemphigoid and gestational pemphigoid. Bullous pemphigoid can be distinguished from other skin conditions that cause blisters by the presence of certain factors, such as:

  • Head and neck are not affected
  • Few or no mucous membrane symptoms
  • Little or no bites or scars

The diagnosis of CP is usually made by a combination of a patient’s history, physical examination, and a biopsy of affected blisters or mucous tissue. Gestational pemphigoid is usually diagnosed by a skin biopsy. Doctors can differentiate the condition from other disorders by checking for the presence of antibodies in skin and blood samples.

Thyroid tests are often done to distinguish gestational pemphigoid from other autoimmune disorders that can cause similar symptoms, such as Grave’s disease.


It cannot be cured, but treatments are often very successful in relieving symptoms. Corticosteroids, also in pill or topical form, will likely be the first treatment your physician prescribes. These medications reduce inflammation and can help heal blisters and relieve itching. However, they can also cause significant side effects, especially from long-term use, so your doctor will lower your corticosteroid dose after the blisters disappear.

Another treatment option is to take medications that suppress your immune system, often in conjunction with corticosteroids. Immunosuppressants help but can put you at risk for other infections. Sure antibiotics, such as tetracycline, may also be prescribed to reduce inflammation and infection.

Risk factors

Your risk of this disease increases if you are middle-aged or older. The condition tends to be more common in people of Jewish or Middle Eastern descent.


Possible complications may include:

  • Infection of your skin
  • Infection that spreads to the bloodstream (sepsis)
  • Malnutrition, because painful sores in the mouth make it difficult to eat
  • Side effects of medications, such as high blood pressure and infections
  • Death, if certain types of pemphigus are not treated

Overview of Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) | Oncology

What is a Fecal occult blood test?

The fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is a laboratory test used to check stool samples for occult blood.

Occult blood in the stool can indicate colon cancer or polyps in the colon or rectum, although not all cancers or polyps bleed.

Occult blood is usually transmitted in such small amounts that it can only be detected through the chemicals used in a fecal occult blood test.

If blood is detected by a fecal occult blood test, additional tests may be needed to determine the source of the bleeding. The fecal occult blood test can only detect the presence or absence of blood; you cannot determine what is causing the bleeding.

A stool occult blood test is not recommended if you have symptoms of colon cancer. If you notice blood in your stool or on the toilet, or if you experience abdominal pain or a change in your bowel habits, make an appointment with your doctor.

Types of fecal occult blood tests

Currently, there are 2 types of FOBT:

Guaiac-based FOBT: This test is if by your hospital’s office or a laboratory and is done at home. During the test, he places a stool sample on a test card covered with a plant substance called guaiac. The card changes color if there is blood in the stool. Then you return the card to your doctor’s office or laboratory for interpretation.

Some guaiac-based FOBTs use disposable pads instead of a card. They are available without a prescription at many pharmacies. The results are available to the user immediately.

Immunochemical FOBT: This test uses a particular protein called an antibody. This specific protein attaches itself to hemoglobin, the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen.

The immunochemical test has some profits over the guaiac test. But both tests are used and can provide information about blood in the stool.


The fecal occult blood test is an option for the detection of colon cancer. It may be a choice if you have a regular risk of colon cancer and don’t have any symptoms. The fecal occult blood test is usually repeated annually.

How must I prepare for the fecal occult blood test?

Stool occult blood test results are greatly affected by how you prepare for the test, so it is important to follow the instructions carefully.

Because sure foods can alter the test results, a special diet is often recommended for 48 to 72 hours before the test. The next foods should be avoided during that time:

  • No raw fruits
  • No raw vegetables
  • No red meat; you can eat chicken and pork
  • Less than 250 mg per day of vitamin C-fortified foods or beverages in the 72 hours before the test

How is a fecal blood test done?

For fecal occult blood tests, several (usually three) stool samples are collected for analysis. The reason for testing multiple samples is that bleeding from cancers and polyps is often intermittent and only one of the samples can show blood.

There are two types of fecal occult blood tests, 1) chemical and 2) immune.

Chemical tests: For chemical tests, a solution that contains the chemical guaiac and an oxidizing chemical is used. If there is blood in the stool sample, mixing the solution with blood causes the guaiac to turn visibly blue. The blue color is caused by the interaction (promoted by the oxidizing agent) of the heme portion of the hemoglobin molecule, the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, and guaiac.

Immunological tests: For immunological tests, a stool sample is mixed with a solution that contains an antibody against globin, the protein that is part of the hemoglobin molecule. The antibody combines with a small amount of gold. When the antibody/gold multifaceted binds to globin in the stool, the antibody/gold/globin complex is put out of solution as a visible line on the test strip.

How do I do a fecal occult blood test?

The fecal occult blood test needs the collection of 3 small stool samples. Usually, the samples are a bit of stool collected at the end of an applicator. Stool samples should be taken one day apart because colon cancers can bleed from time to time, rather than constantly.

You can buy fecal occult blood test kits at the pharmacy to test at home, or your doctor can give you the home test during one of your appointments. These tests provide exact instructions.

Stool samples are collected in a clean container and evaluated for color changes on a test card, or by sending the samples, in a special container and envelope, directly to the doctor’s office for analysis. Your doctor can examine the samples under a microscope or with chemical tests.

What happens during a fecal occult blood test?

A fecal occult blood test is a non-invasive test that you can perform at home whenever you want. Your healthcare provider will give you a kit that includes instructions on how to perform the test. There are two main types of fecal occult blood tests: the guaiac smear technique (gFOBT) and the immunochemical method (iFOBT or FIT). Below are typical instructions for each test. Your orders may vary slightly contingent on the manufacturer of the test kit.

For a guaiac slight test (gFOBT), you will most likely need:

  • Collect samples from three separate bowel movements
  • For each sample, collect the stool and store it in a clean container. Make sure the sample does not mix with urine or toilet water.
  • Use the applicator from your test kit to spread some of the stool onto the test card or slide, also included in your kit.
  • Label and seal all your samples as directed
  • Mail the samples to your healthcare provider or lab

For a fecal immunochemical test (FIT), you will furthermost likely need to:

  • Collect samples from two or three stools
  • Collect the sample from the toilet with the unusual brush or other devices that were involved in your kit
  • For each sample, use the brush or device to collect the sample from the surface of the stool
  • Brush the sample onto a test card
  • Tag and seal all your samples as directed
  • Mail the samples to your healthcare provider or lab

Are there any risks to the test?

The fecal occult blood test is harmless and painless.

What should I expect after the procedure?

You can resume your normal activities immediately after FOBT. After learning the results, talk with your healthcare team about the next steps.


Heat Rash Symptoms and Treatment | Dermatology

What is a heat rash?

A heat rash occurs when sweat ducts develop clogged and sweat cannot reach the surface of the skin. Instead, it gets trapped under the surface of the skin and causes a mild inflammation or rash. Heat rash is also called prickly heat.

The job of the skin is to protect the inside of the body from the outside world. It acts as a preventive barrier against intruders that cause infections, chemicals, or ultraviolet light that invade or damage the body. It also plays an important role in controlling body temperature. One way the body cools itself is by sweating and allowing sweat or perspiration to evaporate. Sweat is produced in the sweat glands that line the entire body (except for some small stains such as fingernails, toenails, and the ear canal).

The sweat glands are located in the dermis or deep layer of the skin and are regulated by the temperature control centers in the brain. Sweat from the gland reaches the surface of the skin through a duct.

Symptoms of heat rash

Small red itchy bumps on the skin are the symptoms of heat rash. The rash may feel stinging or burning.

Call your doctor about heat rash if:

  • The rash is severe or painful or does not go away on its own in a few days
  • You develop an infection in an area where you recently had a heat rash
  • You have a fever or any other symptoms of illness
  • The rash is bright red or streaked
  • The rash starts after you’ve been taking a new antibiotic or medicine

Causes of heat rash

It occurs when pores become clogged and cannot expel sweat. This is more likely to happen in warmer months, in hot climates, and after strenuous exercise. Wearing certain clothing can trap sweat and lead to a heat rash. Using dense lotions and creams can also lead to heat rash.

Heat rash treatment

Heat rash often clears up on its own in about 24 hours. To help it a resolution, move to a cool area with less humidity, if possible, and remove clothing and other items that may increase sweating.

Other tips include:

  • Wear light, loose cotton clothing
  • When exercising, choose a cool place or cooler time of day
  • Use showers, fans, and air conditioning to lower body temperature
  • Avoid irritants that make symptoms worse, such as some synthetic fabrics
  • Avoid waiting in wet clothing, such as after swimming
  • Apply a cold compress, such as a damp washcloth or an ice pack wrapped in a towel, to the rash for up to 20 minutes at a time
  • Use light bedding
  • Drink plenty of fluids, preferably water, to avoid dehydration
  • If the rash itches, hit or pat it instead of scratching

Some over-the-counter preparations can help soothe and resolve persistent prickly heat. They include:

  • Topical preparations, such as calamine, menthol, and camphor-based creams or ointments, can help relieve itching. However, use an emollient with calamine, as it can dry out the skin.
  • Steroid creams can reduce itching and inflammation in people over the age of 10.
  • Antibacterial products can help control or prevent an infection.
  • It’s possible to get a heat rash in colder temperatures if you wear clothing or sleep under sheets that cause overheating. Babies are more probable to develop a rash because their pores are underdeveloped.


The main thing to do is to retain your skin cool so you don’t sweat and irritate the rash

  • To keep your skin fresh
  • Wear loose cotton clothing
  • Wear light bedding
  • Take cold baths or showers
  • Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration
  • To soothe an itch or rash
  • Touch or pat the rash instead of scratching it
  • Do not use scented shower gels or creams
  • A pharmacist can help with heat rash

Talk to a pharmacist about prickly heat. They can give information and suggest the best treatment to use.

A pharmacist may recommend:

  • Calamine lotion
  • Antihistamine tablets
  • Hydrocortisone cream, but not for children under 10 or pregnant women.


Diagnosis of heat rash

A diagnosis is made by sighted the characteristic rash in certain common skin locations, especially after heat-related contact. A doctor can usually make the diagnosis with a visual examination of the rash. However, complicated or atypical cases may essential confirmation from skin culture, skin scrapings, or biopsy. Other skin circumstances can mimic a heat rash including allergic reactions, bacterial infections, fungal infections, or eczema.

Risk factors of heat rash

Factors that make you more disposed to prickly heat include:

  • Newborns are the most susceptible
  • Tropical climates. People who live in the tropics are much more likely to get prickly heat than people in temperate climates
  • Physical activity. Everything that makes you sweat a lot, especially if you’re not wearing clothes that allow sweat to fade, can trigger prickly heat

Complications of heat rash

It usually heals without problems, but it can lead to infection with bacteria, causing itchy, inflamed pustules.