Types and Treatments of Pancreatic Cancer | Oncology

What is pancreatic cancer?

Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissue of the pancreas – an organ in your abdomen located behind the lower part of your stomach. The pancreas secretes enzymes that aid digestion and produce hormones that aid in managing blood sugar.

The pancreas is a 6-inch-long organ located behind the stomach in the back of the abdomen, near the gallbladder. It covers glands that create pancreatic juices, hormones, and insulin. Cancer can affect both the endocrine and exocrine glands of the pancreas. The exocrine glands produce juices or enzymes that enter the intestines and help digest fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. They make up most of the pancreas.

The endocrine glands are small collections of cells known as islets of Langerhans. The announcement the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. There they control blood sugar levels. When they don’t work properly, the result is usually diabetes. The type of cancer and the prognosis for each depends on the function that cancer affects.

Types of pancreatic cancer

There are two different types of pancreatic cancer, depending on whether it affects exocrine or endocrine functions. They have different risk factors, causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatments, and outlooks.

Exocrine pancreatic cancer

Tumors that affect exocrine functions are the most common type. They can be malignant or benign. Benign tumors or cysts are called cystadenomas. Most pancreatic tumors are malignant or cancerous. Different types of pancreatic cancers can affect exocrine functions.

The types of tumor include:

  • Adenocarcinomas, which usually begin in the cells of the glands of the ducts of the pancreas
  • Acinar cell carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the pancreatic enzyme
  • Ampullary cancer, which begins where the bile duct and pancreatic duct meet the duodenum of the small intestine
  • Adenosquamous carcinomas
  • Squamous cell carcinomas
  • Giant cell carcinomas
  • Endocrine pancreatic cancer

Tumors that affect the endocrine functions of the pancreas are called neuroendocrine or islet cell tumors. They are quite rare. The name comes from the type of hormone-producing cell where cancer begins.

They include:

  • Insulinomas (insulin)
  • Glucagonomas (glucagon)
  • Gastrinomas (gastrin)
  • Somatostatinomas (somatostatin)
  • VIPomas (vasoactive intestinal peptide or VIP)

Working islet cell tumors continue to produce hormones. The ones that don’t work don’t. Most of these tumors are benign, but the ones that don’t work are more likely to be malignant islet cell carcinomas.

Symptoms of pancreatic cancer

Because the pancreas is deep in the abdomen in front of the spine, pancreatic cancer often grows quietly for months before being discovered. The early cancer symptoms and/or early signs may be absent or quite subtle. The easiest to identify symptoms develop once the tumor grows enough to press on other nearby structures, such as the nerves (which causes widespread pain and/or back pain), the intestines (which affects appetite and causes nausea together with weight loss) or bile ducts (which causes jaundice or yellowing of the skin and can cause loss of appetite and itching). Symptoms in women rarely differ from those in men.

Once the tumor sheds cancer cells into the blood and lymphatic systems and metastasizes, extra symptoms usually arise, contingent on the location of the metastasis. Common sites of metastasis for pancreatic cancer include the liver, lymph nodes, and the lining of the abdomen (called the peritoneum; ascites fluid can accumulate in metastatic pancreatic cancer). Unfortunately, most pancreatic cancers are found after cancer has full-grown or advanced beyond the pancreas or has metastasized to other places.

In general, the signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer can be caused by exocrine or endocrine cancer cells. Many of the signs and symptoms of exocrine pancreatic cancer are due to a blockage of the duct that travels through the pancreas from the liver that carries bile to the intestine. Symptoms of exocrine pancreatic cancer include

  • Jaundice
  • Dark urine
  • Skin itch
  • Light-coloured stools
  • Pain in the abdomen or back
  • Lack of appetite and weight loss
  • Digestive difficulties (pale and/or greasy stools, nausea and vomiting)
  • Blood clots, and
  • Enlarged gallbladder

The signs and symptoms of endocrine pancreatic cancers are often related to the excess hormones they produce, and so to a variety of diverse symptoms. These symptoms are related to hormones and are as follows:

  • Insulinomas: Insulin-producing tumors that lower blood glucose (sugar) levels can cause low blood sugar levels that lead to weakness, confusion, coma, and even death.
  • Glucagonomas: Glucagon-producing tumors can increase glucose levels and cause symptoms of diabetes (thirst, increased urination, diarrhea, and skin changes, especially a characteristic rash called necrolytic erythema migrans).
  • Gastrinomas: Gastrin-producing tumors cause the stomach to produce too much acid, leading to ulcers, black tar stools, and anemia.
  • Somatostatinomas: Somatostatin-producing tumors cause other hormones to develop over-regulated, causing symptoms of diabetes, diarrhea, stomach pain, jaundice, and possibly other problems.
  • VIPomas: These tumors produce a material called a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) that can cause severe watery diarrhea and digestive difficulties along with high blood glucose levels.
  • PPomas: These tumors produce pancreatic polypeptide (PP) that affects endocrine and exocrine functions, leading to abdominal pain, liver enlargement, and watery diarrhea.
  • Carcinoid tumors: These tumors produce serotonin or its precursor, 5-HTP, and can cause carcinoid syndrome with symptoms of red skin, diarrhea, wheezing, and a rapid heart rate that occurs on an episodic basis; Eventually, a heart murmur, shortness of breath, and weakness develop due to damage to the heart valves.

Non-functional neuroendocrine tumors do not overproduce hormones, but they can grow and spread outside of the pancreas. So the symptoms can be similar to any of the endocrine pancreatic cancers described above.

Causes of pancreatic cancer

The cause of pancreatic cancer is unknown. This type of cancer occurs when abnormal cells begin to grow inside the pancreas and form tumors. Usually, healthy cells grow and die in reasonable numbers. In the case of cancer, there is a greater amount of abnormal cell production and these cells eventually take over healthy cells.

While doctors and researchers don’t know what causes cell changes, they do know about some common factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing this type of cancer. The two most important risk factors are inherited genetic mutations and acquired genetic mutations. Genes control the way cells work, so changes in those genes can lead to cancer.


A pancreatic tumor can only be seen on an imaging study, such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The doctor then takes a sample of the tumor tissue to determine the exact diagnosis.

Why is pancreatic cancer hard to find?

The pancreas is situated deep in the abdomen, so doctors usually cannot see or feel the tumor during a physical exam. Also, symptoms of pancreatic cancer are not always obvious and usually develop over time. Physicians can use various tests to make a diagnosis. But there is no normal test to diagnose pancreatic cancer. This makes the diagnosis even more complicated.

Treatment of pancreatic cancer

The best treatment for pancreatic cancer depends on how far it has spread or its stage. The stages of pancreatic cancer are easy to understand. The difficult thing is trying to stage pancreatic cancer without resorting to major surgery. In practice, doctors choose treatments for pancreatic cancer based on imaging studies, surgical findings, and a person’s general state of well-being.

Stages of pancreatic cancer

The stage is a term used in cancer treatment to describe how far cancer has spread. The stages of pancreatic cancer are used to guide treatment and classify patients for clinical trials. The stages of pancreatic cancer are:

Stage 0: No propagation: Pancreatic cancer is limited to the upper layers of cells in the ducts of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer is not visible on imaging tests or even with the naked eye.

Stage I: Local growth: Pancreatic cancer is confined to the pancreas, but has grown to less than 2 centimetres wide (stage IA) or more than 2 but not more than 4 centimetres (stage IB).

Stage II: Local spread: Pancreatic cancer is larger than 4 centimetres and is limited to the pancreas or there is a local spread where cancer has grown outside the pancreas or has spread to nearby lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant sites.

Stage III: Wider spread: The tumor may have spread to nearby major blood vessels or nerves, but has not metastasized to distant sites.

Stage IV: Confirmed spread: Pancreatic cancer has spread to distant organs.

Determining the stage of pancreatic cancer is often difficult. Imaging tests, such as CT scan and ultrasound, provide some information, but to find out exactly how far pancreatic cancer has spread, surgery is usually required. Since surgery has risks, doctors first determine whether pancreatic cancer appears to be surgically removable (resectable). Pancreatic cancer is described below as follows:

  • Resectable: On imaging tests, pancreatic cancer hasn’t spread (or at least not very far), and one surgeon thinks everything could be removable. About 10% of pancreatic cancers are considered resectable when they are first diagnosed.
  • Locally advanced (unresectable): Pancreatic cancer has become important blood vessels on imaging tests, so the tumor cannot be safely removed by surgery.
  • Metastatic: Pancreatic cancer has clearly spread to other organs, so surgery cannot remove cancer.

Risk factors

Factors that can surge your risk of pancreatic cancer include:

  • Of smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Chronic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Family history of genetic syndromes that can increase the risk of cancer, including a BRCA2 gene mutation, Lynch syndrome, and familial atypical molar malignant melanoma syndrome (FAMMM)
  • Family history of pancreatic cancer.
  • Obesity
  • Elder age, as most people are diagnosed after age 65

A large study presented that the combination of smoking, long-term diabetes, and poor diet increases the risk of pancreatic cancer outside the risk of any of these factors alone.


As pancreatic cancer developments, it can cause complications such as:

  • Weightloss: Several factors can cause weight loss in people with pancreatic cancer. Weight loss can occur because cancer consumes the body’s energy. Nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatments or a tumor pressing on the stomach can make eating difficult. Or your body may have a hard time processing the nutrients in food because your pancreas doesn’t make enough digestive juices.
  • Jaundice: Pancreatic cancer that blocks the bile duct of the liver can cause jaundice. Signs contain yellow skin and eyes, dark-coloured urine, and pale-coloured stools. Jaundice generally occurs without abdominal pain.

Your doctor may recommend that a plastic or metal tube (stent) be placed inside the bile duct to keep it open. This is complete with the help of a process called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). During ERCP, an endoscope is passed down the throat, through the stomach, and into the upper part of the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the pancreatic and bile ducts finished by a small hollow tube (catheter) that is passed through the endoscope. Finally, pictures of the ducts are taken.

  • Pain: A growing tumor can press on nerves in the abdomen and cause pain that can become severe. Pain relievers can help you feel more comfortable. Treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy, can help slow tumor growth and relieve pain.

In severe cases, your doctor may recommend a procedure to inject alcohol into the pain-controlling nerves in your abdomen (celiac plexus block). This procedure prevents nerves from sending pain signals to your brain.

  • Intestinal obstruction: Pancreatic cancer that grows or presses on the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) can block the flow of digested food from the stomach to the intestines.

Your doctor may recommend that a tube (stent) be placed in your small intestine to keep it open. In some situations, it may be helpful to have surgery to place a temporary feeding tube or attach the stomach to a lower point in the intestines that are not blocked by cancer.


You can decrease your risk of pancreatic cancer by:

  • Stop smoking: If you smoke, try to stop. Talk to your doctor about strategies to help you quit smoking, including support groups, medications, and nicotine replacement therapy. If you don’t smoke, don’t start.
  • Keep a healthy weight: If you are at a healthy weight, work to uphold it. If you need to lose weight, try to lose weight slowly and steadily – 1 to 2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kilogram) a week. Syndicate daily exercise with a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains with lesser portions to help you lose weight.
  • Choose a healthy diet: A diet rich in colourful fruits and vegetables and whole grains can help reduce your risk of cancer.

Reflect on meeting with a genetic counsellor if you have a family history of pancreatic cancer. He or she can appraisal your family health history with you and determine if you could benefit from genetic testing to understand your risk for pancreatic or other cancers.


Types and Treatments of Fungal Skin Infection | Dermatology

What is a fungal skin infection?

Fungal skin infection is also known as mycosis, and fungal skin infection is a skin disease caused by a fungus. There are millions of species of fungi. They live in dust, on plants, on household surfaces, and on your skin. Sometimes they will cause skin problems like rashes or bumps.

These types of skin diseases are caused by a fungus and most often develop in moist areas of the body, such as the feet or armpits. Some yeast infections are not contagious, and these fungal skin infections are generally not life-threatening.

Different types of fungal skin infections

Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis)

The athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) may be a mycosis or fungal skin infection that sometimes begins between the toes. It usually occurs in people whose feet are very sweaty when confined to tight shoes.

The signs and symptoms of an athlete’s foot usually include a scaly rash that itches and burns. The athlete’s foot infection can be spread through contaminated floors, towels, or clothing.

Symptoms of athlete’s foot

The skin on the feet, especially between the toes, becomes itchy; it is also a stinging or burning sensation. The skin can also be:

  • Dry
  • In layers
  • Red
  • Scales
  • Cracking

Occasionally, there may be cracks in the skin and melting or crusting, itchy blisters, and swelling. Climbing patterns of the sole and side of the foot may develop. Sometimes bacterial infections can occur along with the condition. When an athlete’s foot is severe and open sores form on the skin, it can cause more damage to bacteria.

Causes of athlete’s foot

Athlete’s foot is a type of fungal skin infection caused by the same type of fungus that causes ringworm and itching. Wet socks and shoes and hot, humid conditions are conducive to the growth of organisms.

The athlete’s foot becomes contagious and is spread through contact with an infected person or through contaminated surfaces such as towels, floors, and shoes.

Risk factors

Athlete’s feet are at higher risk if you have:

  • Wear wet socks or stockings frequently
  • Share handles, rugs, bedding, clothing, or shoes with people with fungal infections
  • Walk barefoot in public places where the infection is prevalent, such as changing rooms, saunas, swimming pools, religious baths, and showers.


Athlete’s foot infection may result in the following complications

  • Your hand: People who scratch or pick infected parts of their feet can develop an identical infection on one of their hands.
  • Your nails: Fungi associated with an athlete’s foot can also infect the nails, making this area more resistant to treatment.
  • Your groin: Cat itch is often caused by the same fungus that causes athlete’s foot. It’s common for the infection to spread from the feet to the groin, so the fungus can travel on your hands or a towel


These tips can help you prevent athlete’s foot or reduce symptoms if a fungal skin infection occurs:

  • Keep your feet dry, especially between the toes. Go barefoot to ventilate your feet as much as possible when at home. Dry between your toes after a shower.
  • Change your socks regularly. If your feet sweat tons, change your socks twice each day.
  • Wear lightweight, well-ventilated shoes. Avoid shoes made of synthetic material like vinyl or rubber.
  • Alternative pairs of shoes. Don’t wear the same pair every day, so your shoes have time to dry after each use.
  • Protect your feet in public places. Wear waterproof sandals or boots in rooms with public pools, showers, and lockers.
  • Treat your feet. Use a dry antifungal, preferably on your feet every day.
  • Don’t share shoes. Sharing the risks of spreading a yeast infection.

Diagnosis of athlete’s foot

  • A doctor diagnoses an athlete’s foot by symptoms. Or a doctor may order a skin test if she’s unsure whether a yeast infection or fungal skin infection is causing your symptoms.
  • The potassium hydroxide test for skin lesions is the most common test for athlete’s feet. A doctor removes a small area of infected skin and puts it in potassium hydroxide. KOH destroys normal cells and leaves fungal cells intact, making them easy to see under a microscope.

Treatment of athlete’s foot

If your athlete’s foot is light, your doctor may suggest using an over-the-counter antifungal ointment, cream, powder, or spray. If your athlete’s foot does not respond, you will need prescription medicine to apply to your feet. Serious infections may require antifungal pills that are taken by mouth.

Jock Itch (tinea cruris)

Jack’s Itch (Tinea cruris) is a fungal infection that causes red, itchy rashes on warm, moist areas of the body. The rash often affects the groin and inner thighs and can be ring-shaped. Jack got its name from itching because it is so common among athletes. It is also common in people who sweat a lot or are overweight.

Jock itch symptoms

Jock itch usually begins with a reddened area of skin within the crease within the groin. It often spreads to the upper thigh in a half-moon shape rash could also be ring-shaped and bordered with a line of small blisters. It may burn or feel itchy, and therefore the skin could also be flaky or scaly.

Jock itch causes

Causes of jock itch include the following:

  • Warmth, skin friction, and moist areas within the groin
  • Different types of clothing and undergarments that trap sweat
  • Infections caused by fungus and yeasts: Candida(yeast), Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton (fungal molds) which lead to a fungal skin infection.
  • Infections by certain types of bacteria

Risk factors

  • Gender: Men are more likely than women to develop cat itch.
  • Weight: Overweight people have more skin folds, which is the best environment for yeast infections, including itching.
  • Excessive sweating: If a person sweats a lot, their skin is suitable for fungal growth.
  • Age: teenagers are more prone to itchiness.
  • Wearing Tight Clothing and Underwear: Tight clothing traps moisture against the skin and creates a prime environment for fungus to grow and cause fungal skin infection.
  • Have a weakened immune system: People with a weakened immune system are more likely to get a fungal infection like cat itch than others.
  • Having diabetes: People with diabetes are prone to skin conditions, including itching.


Ringworm is often painful or itchy, but not in all cases. There is visual evidence that can help detect a yeast infection. In addition to:

  • Swelling of the groin, anal area, and upper thigh, including the genitals
  • Slightly raised patch
  • Defined limits
  • Expanding or spreading, with a clearing in the middle
  • Dry or scaly blisters (occasional dripping or scabbing)
  • Abnormally dark or light skin
  • The skin is red or inflamed.
  • Yeast infections often spread in a circle, leaving the normally visible skin in the middle. On the verge of infection, the skin grows, reddens, and flakes.


  • Keep the groin area clean and dry, especially after washing, exercising, or on a hot day.
  • Wear cotton underwear
  • Avoid tight synthetic clothing or agile clothing
  • Wear loose clothing
  • Change your underwear every day
  • Change your towels frequently


Your doctor can often diagnose cat itch by looking at the rash. If the diagnosis is not clear, your doctor may take skin scrapings or samples from the infected area to study under a microscope.

Jock itch treatment

If you don’t treat the itch, it can last for months. But over-the-counter drugs called antifungals usually go away within a few weeks. They are available in creams, powders, and sprays.

  • Keep the area clean and dry. Follow these steps for faster healing:
  • Rinse the area and then pat dry with a clean towel.
  • For the rest of the body other than the infected area using a different towel
  • Lab read the word tag and apply the word as directed.
  • Use it for the recommended time; The infection can come back if it is stopped quickly.
  • Talk to your doctor if you don’t feel well for a few weeks. You may need a badly needed medicine.

Ringworm (tinea corporis)

Also known as ringworm, dermatophytosis, dermatophyte infection, or tinea, which is a fungal infection of the skin. “Ringworm” is a misnomer because it is a fungus, not a worm, that causes a fungal skin infection. The ulcer caused by this infection resembles a ring-shaped worm – hence the name.

Symptoms of ringworm

Ringworm symptoms by position on the body:

  • Feet (tinea pedis or “athlete’s foot”): Symptoms of ringworm on the feet include redness, swelling, peeling, and itching of the skin between the toes (especially the little and adjacent toes). The sole and heel of the foot are also affected. In severe cases, the skin on the feet can cause blisters.
  • Scalp (tinea capitis): Ringworm on the scalp usually appears as circular, red, scaly, and itchy bald spots. The size of the bald scar increases and multiple scars develop as the infection spreads. Ringworm of the scalp more common in children
  • Groin (tinea cruris or “cat itch”): Ringworm in the groin appears as red, dry, itchy spots, usually in the inner folds of the skin of the thigh.
  • Beard: Symptoms of ringworm on the chin include peeling, itching, red spots on the cheeks, chin, and upper neck. The spots may be covered with scab or pus, and the affected hair may fall out.

Causes of ringworm

Ringworm is an infectious fungal infection caused by simple mold-like parasites that live in cells in the outer layer of the skin. It spreads in the following ways:

  • From human to human: Ringworm is often spread through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person.
  • Animal to a human: You can get ringworm by touching an animal with ringworm. Ringworm can be transmitted when dogs or cats are petted or dressed. It is also very common in cows.
  • Object to man: Ringworm can be spread by contact with an infected person or animal with clothing, towels, bedding, and freshly touched or rubbed objects or surfaces, such as bedding, combs, and brushes.
  • Soil for man: In rare cases, ringworm can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected soil. Infection often occurs only by prolonged contact with infected soil.

Risk factors

Your body’s risk of getting ringworm is higher if you have:

  • Live in a warm climate
  • Stay in close contact with an infected person or animal.
  • Share clothing, bedding, or towels with people with fungal infections.
  • Participate in skin-to-skin sports such as wrestling.
  • Wear tight or restricted clothing
  • Have a weakened immune system


The infection is not serious and rarely, at any time, spreads below the surface of the skin. However, people with weakened immune systems, such as those living with HIV or AIDS, may have a difficult time recovering from an infection.

As with other infections and skin conditions, itchy, irritated, or cracked skin can lead to secondary bacterial infections that require treatment with antibiotics.


  • Keep your skin clean and dry.
  • Choose shoes that allow the passage of air to the feet.
  • Do not walk barefoot in areas such as locker rooms or outdoor showers.
  • Trim your fingernails and toenails and keep them clean.
  • Change your socks and underwear a minimum of one time a day.
  • Do not share clothes, towels, sheets, or other personal items with people with ringworm.
  • Wash your hands with soap and running water after twiddling with pets.
  • If you suspect your pet has ringworm, take her to the vet. If your pet has ringworm, follow the steps below to prevent the spread of infection.
  • If you are an athlete involved in close contact sports, take a shower immediately after your practice session or game and keep your sports equipment and uniform clean. Do not share sports equipment (helmets, etc.) with other players.


By looking at the affected skin and asking questions about your symptoms your healthcare provider can usually diagnose ringworm. You can also take a small skin scrap to examine under a microscope or send it to a lab for a fungal culture.

Treatment of ringworm

If over-the-counter treatments don’t work, you may need prescription antifungal medications, such as ionic lotion, cream, or ointment that you apply to the affected skin. If your fungal skin infection is particularly severe or widespread, your doctor may prescribe antifungal pills.

Tinea versicolor

Tinea versicolor is a fungal infection of the skin that is very common. The fungus interferes with the normal pigmentation of the skin, resulting in the formation of small pale spots. These patches can be lighter or darker than the surrounding skin and generally affect the trunk and shoulders.

Tinea versicolor symptoms

Signs and symptoms of tinea versicolor:

  • Discolouration of the skin, usually on the back, chest, neck, and upper arm, lighter or darker than normal
  • Mild itching
  • Climbing


Yeast growth on the surface of the skin causes tinea versicolor. If your skin is warm, moist, and oily, the natural yeast available will grow in small colonies. These are responsible for Tinea versicolor.

Risk factors

Several factors increase the chances of developing tinea versicolor. Besides these

  • Hot and humid weather,
  • Excessive sweating (for example, those who sweat a lot or those who do a lot of sports) and
  • Use of oils or cosmetics to clog the pores of the skin.
  • Genes probably play a very important role.

People with weakened immune systems are more likely to develop a fungal skin infection, making them more likely to develop tinea versicolor. The immune system can be weakened by certain types of cancer or drugs that suppress the immune system, for example, after an organ transplant.


The main problem with tinea versicolor is skin discolouration, which lasts for weeks after treatment because melanocytes (cells that produce skin colour) need time to recover and properly pigment the skin.

There are no permanent problems with tinea versicolor. Unlike pure superficial infection/colonization, there is no concern for a deep invasion in patients with an intact immune system.


The most effective prevention method is hygiene. Removing excess oil and dirt from the skin can help protect a person from getting this infection.

Over-the-counter antifungal lotions and shampoos provide good ways to prevent it. Similar products can also help control a mild infection. Also, taking a few extra steps to stay dry in hot, humid weather and not getting too much sunlight can help stop the growth of tinea versicolor.


See your doctor if strange coloured patches appear on your skin and you cannot treat them at home. Your doctor will examine your skin and tell you if you have tinea versicolor by looking at the patches. If the diagnosis cannot be made by looking at the skin, your doctor may perform a skin scraping. Skin scraping removes skin cells for analysis by gently scraping them.

A microscope is shown below to see if the cells contain the yeast that causes this condition. Your doctor may perform a potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. During this procedure, your doctor will take a skin sample, place it under a microscope slide with a 20 per cent KOH solution, and look for yeast fungi or hyphae under a microscope.

Tinea versicolor treatment

If your tinea versicolor is severe or does not respond to over-the-counter antifungal medications, you may need prescription medications. Some of these medications are topical preparations that are rubbed on the skin. Others are drugs that you take.


  • Ketoconazole cream, gel, or shampoo (ketoconazole, nizoral, others)
  • Ciclopirox (Loprox, Penlock) cream, gel, or shampoo
  • Fluconazole (Diflucon) tablets or oral solution
  • Itraconazole (Onemel, Sporanox) tablets, capsules, or oral solution
  • 2.5% Selenium Sulfide (Nelson) Ion Lotion or Shampoo

Even after successful treatment, your skin colour will remain uneven for many weeks or months. Also, fungal skin infection can reappear in hot, humid weather. In persistent cases, you may need to take the medication once or twice a month to prevent the recurrence of the fungal skin infection.


Diagnosis and Treatments of Insulinoma | Oncology

What is an insulinoma?

Insulinoma is a rare tumor of the pancreas. It is made up of cells called islet beta cells, which produce insulin in the pancreas and regulate blood sugar. In general, your pancreas makes more insulin when your blood sugar is high, and when your blood sugar is low. Insulinoma produces insulin at all times, even when your blood sugar is very low.

You may hear of an insulinoma called a “neuroendocrine tumor” because it begins in specific cells in your body called neuroendocrine cells. These tumors are usually small (less than an inch) and most are not cancerous. In most cases, surgery will cure them.

An insulinoma is a rare tumor of the beta cells in the pancreas that results in an excessive amount of insulin being produced. As insulinomas produce insulin, they can cause hypoglycemia and lead to dangerously low blood sugar levels. They generally occur in people between the ages of 40 and 60.

Insulinomas can be a cause of diabetes if the treatment of this disease requires a significant amount of the pancreas to be removed. 90 per cent of insulinomas are benign (non-cancerous), but most of the time these tumors will need to be removed by surgery. 10 per cent of people will have more than one tumor, while in one out of 10 cases, the tumor will spread to another body part.

How is insulinoma related to diabetes?

Secondary diabetes is caused by insulinomas if all or a substantial amount of the pancreas is removed because insulin is no longer being produced. It can cause hypoglycemia, and people with diabetes are more likely to develop hypoglycemia due to medications such as insulin, sulfonylureas, and glinides. However, research suggests that insulinomas are rare in people with prediabetes.

The link between diabetes mellitus and insulinomas of the pancreas is unclear. However, they concluded that when a diabetic patient using insulin experiences a significant reduction in insulin requirements, insulinomas should be considered as a cause. Edemas and others have suggested that insulinomas may coexist with diabetes mellitus, but Muhammad Fouad Hamid and others report that this event is very rare.

Symptoms of insulinoma

People with this disease do not always have noticeable symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they can vary depending on the severity of the condition.

Mild symptoms:

  • Double vision or blurred vision
  • Confusion
  • Anxiety and irritability
  • Dizziness
  • Humour changes
  • Weakness
  • Sweat
  • Hungry
  • Vibrations
  • Sudden weight gain

The most serious symptoms of insulinoma affect the brain. They also affect the adrenal glands, which regulate the stress response and heart rate. Occasionally there are symptoms of epilepsy, a neurological disorder that causes seizures. Symptoms seen in more severe cases of this disease may include:

  • Fits or convulsions
  • Fast heart rate (more than 95 beats per minute)
  • Difficult to focus
  • Loss of consciousness or coma

In some cases, insulinomas become larger and spread to other parts of the body. When this happens, you may experience the following symptoms:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Back pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Jaundice or yellowing of the skin and eyes

Causes and risk factors

It is not clear why some people develop insulinomas. Women are slightly more likely to have them than men. Most of the people are between 40 and 60 years old. If you have certain genetic conditions, you are more likely to have an insulinoma, including:

  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: When tumors grow in the hormone-producing glands
  • Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: When tumors and cysts grow in many organs of the body
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1: Non-cancerous tumors of the nerves and skin
  • Tuberous sclerosis: Non-cancerous tumors that grow in your brain, eyes, heart, kidneys, skin, and lungs.

Insulinomas are very rare. They are very small and are less than 2 cm in diameter. Only 10% of these tumors are cancerous. Cancerous tumors are more common in people with type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia. It is an inherited disease that causes tumors in one or more hormone glands. The risk of insulinoma is also higher in people with Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. This inherited condition causes tumors and cysts to form throughout the body.

Insulinoma diagnosis

Doctors have a hard time diagnosing this disease. Its symptoms are similar to other common health problems. It will take a while before your doctor finds it.

They will do tests like:

Blood tests and suppression tests: To find out if you have an insulinoma, your doctor will test your blood sugar, insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin during a 72-hour rest period.

This confirms:

  • You may have symptoms of low blood sugar, especially after not eating or exercising a lot.
  • When you have these symptoms, your blood sugar is low
  • Once your blood sugar level goes up, your symptoms will go away

To do this, they will see what happens to your blood sugar level after you fast for a day or two. At this point, you must be in the hospital and cannot eat or drink anything but water. The doctor will test your blood to see if you have low blood sugar and high insulin levels.

Imaging tests: You can also get an imaging test like a CT scan, ultrasound, or MRI so your doctor can see where the tumor is.

How is insulinoma treated?

Surgical removal of the tumor is the best treatment for this disease. If there is more than one tumor, even a small part of the pancreas can be removed. It usually cures the condition. Various surgeries may be done to remove the insulinoma. The location and number of tumors determine which surgery will be used.

Laparoscopic surgery is the preferred option if there is a small pancreatic tumor. This is a minimally invasive and low-risk approach. During laparoscopic surgery, your surgeon will make several small incisions in your abdomen and insert the laparoscope through the incisions. The laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera on the front. The camera displays images on the screen, allowing the surgeon to look inside your abdomen and guide the instruments. When it is found, it is removed.

If there are multiple insulinomas, some part of the pancreas needs to be removed. Sometimes even part of the stomach or liver can be removed. In rare cases, removing the cancer may not cure the condition. This generally applies when the tumors are cancerous. Cancer Insulinoma Treatments:

  • Radiofrequency ablation, which uses radio waves to kill cancer cells in the body.
  • Cryotherapy, which involves the use of extreme cold to destroy cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy, which is an aggressive form of chemotherapy that helps kill cancer cells.

If surgery is not effective, your doctor may prescribe medication to control blood sugar levels.

Complications of insulinoma

Most of the time, surgery cures this disease. There may be side effects or complications after surgery, including:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Pain
  • If your surgeon removes most of the pancreas, high blood sugar (diabetes)
  • Pancreatic fistula
  • Low digestive enzymes

If your disease is cancer, problems may include:

  • Metastasis
  • Blood sugar is low if cancer has spread to the liver.

Procedure of Mammography (Mammogram) | Oncology

What is mammography?

A (Mammography) mammogram is an X-ray of the breast. It is a screening tool used to detect and diagnose breast cancer. Along with regular clinical exams and monthly breast self-exams, mammograms are a key element in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

According to a trusted source from the National Cancer Institute, breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the United States, after skin cancer. Respectively year there are about 2,300 new cases of breast cancer in men and about 230,000 new cases in women.

Some experts recommend that women age 40 and older have a mammogram every one to two years. The American Cancer Society recommends regular screenings starting at age 45. If you have a personal or family history of breast cancer, your doctor may mention that you start screening earlier, have it more often, or use added diagnostic tools.

If your physician orders a mammogram as a routine test to look for cancer or changes, it is known as a screening mammogram. In this type of test, your doctor will take numerous X-rays of each breast.

If you have a lump or any other symptoms of breast cancer, your doctor will order a diagnostic mammogram. If you have breast implants, you probably need a diagnostic mammogram. Diagnostic mammograms are more comprehensive than screening mammograms. They generally require more X-rays to get views of the breast from multiple positions. Your radiologist can also zoom in on certain areas of concern.

How do I prepare for my mammogram?

You will need to follow certain guidelines on the day of your mammography appointment. You cannot use deodorants, body powders, or perfumes. Also, no ointments or creams should be applied to the breasts or armpits. These substances can distort images or look like calcifications or calcium deposits, so it is important to avoid them.

Be sure to inform your radiologist before the exam if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. In general, you will not be able to have a screening mammogram at this time, but if necessary, your doctor may order other screening methods, such as an ultrasound.

What happens during the mammogram?

After you undress from the waist up and remove your necklaces, a technician will give you a gown that ties in the front. Depending on the testing centre, you may be standing or sitting during the mammography.

Each of the breasts fits onto a flat X-ray film. Then a compressor will push the breast depressed to flatten the tissue. This provides a clearer image of the breast. You may have to hold your breath for each image. You may feel a small amount of pressure or discomfort, but it is usually brief.

During the process, your doctor will review the images as they are created. They can request added images showing changed views if something is unclear or needs more attention. This happens quite frequently and shouldn’t be a cause for distress or panic. Digital mammograms are sometimes used if available. They are especially useful for women under 50, who tend to have denser breasts than older women.

A digital mammogram transforms the X-ray into an electronic image of the breast that is saved on a computer. Images are immediately viewable, so your radiologist does not have to wait for images. The computer can also help your doctor see images that may not have been very visible on regular mammography.


As with any type of X-ray, you are being exposed to a very small amount of radiation during the mammography. However, the risk from this revelation is extremely low. If a woman is pregnant and absolutely needs a mammogram before her due date, she will usually wear a lead apron during the procedure.

Why is the mammogram test done?

A mammogram is an X-ray copy of the breast. Doctors use mammography to look for early marks of breast cancer. Regular mammography is the best tests doctors have for finding breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt.

Is the mammogram test painful?

Everyone experiences mammography differently. Some women may feel pain during the procedure, and others may feel nothing at all. Most women feel some distress during the actual x-ray process. The pressure of the test kit against your breasts can cause pain or discomfort, and this is normal.


Causes and Treatments of Corns and Calluses | Dermatology

What are corns and calluses?

Corns and calluses are annoying, but your body actually forms them to protect sensitive skin. Corns and calluses are often confused. Corn usually occurs in pressure points, usually on the soles of the feet and the toes. Corns and calluses are painful. A hard corn is a small piece of thick, dead skin.

A soft corn has a very thin surface and usually occurs between the 4th and 5th leg. Seedcorn is a small, isolated gallbladder that is very soft if it is on the load-bearing part of the foot. Seedcorn is found on the soles of the feet, and some doctors believe the disease is caused by blocked sweat ducts.

The corns are small and rounded. You will likely see corn on your toes or the sides. There are several types of corn:

  • Soft corn: This corn is white/grey in colour and has a soft, rubbery texture. Soft corn appears between the fingers.
  • Seedcorn: These corns are small and usually form at the base of the feet.
  • Rough corns: These are small, rough, and dense areas of skin, usually in a large area of ​​thick skin. Hard corn usually forms on the toes, areas where there is the pressure of the bones against the skin.

Corns are the thickening and painless removal of the outer layer of the skin. They can also develop on the hands, feet, or recurring friction anywhere: on the violin’s chin. Like corn, there are many varieties of tripe. Common corns usually occur when there is a lot of massage on the hands or feet. A plantar fascia appears on the sole.

Corns and calluses symptoms

If you notice that you may have corn or calluses:

  • Thick and rough skin area
  • Scaly, dry, or waxy skin
  • Increased hardened bump
  • Tenderness or pain under the skin

Corns and calluses are not the same.

  • Corns: Corns are smaller than calluses and have a rough centre surrounded by inflamed skin. Corn thrives on the toes of your feet and shoulders and even on the parts of your feet that don’t support the weight between your toes. They can also be found in weight areas. Corn is sore when pressed.
  • Calluses: Calluses are rarely painful. They usually grow on the soles of your feet, especially under the heels or under the balls, on your palms, or your knees. Calluses vary in size and shape and are often larger than corn.

Causes of corns and calluses

Corns and calluses have the same causes. In addition to:

  • Physical hobbies, sports activities, or work/work put pressure on your feet.
  • Going barefoot.
  • Standing, walking, or running for a long time.
  • Structural deformations of the foot or alteration of the biomechanics (haemorrhoids, Tyler’s bunions, congenital malformations).
  • Physical, sports, or work hobbies that cause repeated friction in the skin area of ​​the hands or fingers.
  • Walking in a bad posture – walking too high on the inside or outside edge of your foot.
  • Having socks and/or shoe liners, slip under your feet when you have shoes, and do a bunch.
  • Don’t wear socks with shoes.
  • Shoes that don’t fit properly. It is a very common cause of corns on the top of the feet. Shoes that have areas that are too tight or rub against your skin can cause scratching, chafing, and stress. Women, who often wear high-heeled shoes, develop calluses on the soles of the feet from the pressure that descends on this area while running.

Treatment of corns and calluses

The treatment of corns and calluses involves avoiding the repetitive actions that usually lead to growth. Wearing well-fitting shoes, using protective pads, and taking other self-protective measures can help you fix them.

If the corn or calluses persist or are painful despite your personal efforts, medical treatments may provide relief:

  • Cut off excess skin: Your doctor may shed thickened skin or cut large calluses with a scalpel, usually during an office visit. Do not try it yourself because it can lead to infection.
  • Shoe inserts: If you have a foot deformity, your doctor may prescribe custom-made padded shoe inserts (orthotics) to prevent the recurrence of corns or calluses.
  • Surgery: In rare cases, your doctor may recommend surgery to correct the alignment of the bone causing the fracture.
  • Medicines to remove corns: Your doctor may also apply a patch containing 40% salicylic acid (Clear Away, Mediplast, etc.). These patches are available without a prescription. Your doctor will tell you how often to change this patch. He or she may recommend that you use a pumice stone, a nail file, or an emery board to gently exfoliate dead skin before applying a new patch. You can get a prescription for salicylic acid in gel form to apply to large areas.

Risk factors

In any condition or activity that causes excessive friction on the fingers or toes can lead to the development of corns or calluses. People of all ages are affected, but they are most often found in people over 65. Corns and calluses affect 20-65% of people in this age group. Some of these factors are risk factors

  • Using devices, tools, or instruments that put pressure on specific areas of the fingers
  • Certain professions such as farmers or garden workers
  • Anatomy of the feet or toes
  • Gait abnormalities
  • Anomalies of the anatomy of the feet or toes
  • Swelling at the beginning of the big toe
  • A hammer is a deformity in which the toe curves like a claw
  • Certain conditions, such as bone spurs, can cause constant friction inside your shoe
  • Using hand tools without wearing gloves can make your skin more prone to friction