Signs and Symptoms of Thymus Cancer | Oncology

What is thymus cancer?

Thymus cancer is very rare. The thymus is a small organ located behind the breastbone in front of the chest. The thymus is the part of the chest called the mediastinum, the middle part of the chest that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, part of the trachea (windpipe), and numerous lymph nodes. The thymus is in front of and above the heart.

The thymus gland is an organ in your chest, just below your breast bone. It is a part of the lymphatic system of your body’s immune system. There are two main types of thymus cancer – thymoma and thymic carcinoma – and both are very rare.

Thymic carcinoma is more aggressive and more difficult to treat than thymol. Thymic carcinoma is also known as type C thymoma. People with thymoma may also have an autoimmune disease, such as mastinia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, or rheumatoid arthritis.

Cells can become cancerous almost anywhere in the body and spread to other parts of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, what is cancer?. The thymus is divided into 2 parts, called lobes. It has an irregular shape. On its surface are a large number of small bumps called lobes. The thymus has 3 main layers:

  • The thin coating on the outside of the thymus capsule.
  • During puberty, the maximum weight of the thymus reaches 1 ounce. As it is replaced with fatty tissue, it decreases in size during puberty.
  • During fetal development and infancy, the thymus is involved in the production and maturation of T lymphocytes (also known as T cells), a type of white blood cell. T lymphocytes develop in the thymus and then travel throughout the body to the lymph nodes (bean-sized groups of immune system cells). There they help the immune system to protect the body from viruses, fungi, and other types of infections.

The thymus is made up of different types of cells. Each type develops into different types of cancer:

  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas, which predominate in the rest of the article, develop from these cells.
  • The rest of the thymus is rich in lymphocytes. Either in the thymus or elsewhere in the body, these cells of the immune system develop into cancers called Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • These cells can cause cancers called carcinoid tumors. This article does not discuss carcinoid tumors of the thymus. Much of the information on Ung lung carcinoid tumors and gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors also applies to carcinoids of the thymus.

Causes of thymus cancer

The thymus is an organ in your chest, just below the breastbone. It is part of the lymphatic system of your body’s immune system. The thymus gland makes white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help your body fight infection.

There are two main types of thymus cancer, thymoma, and thymic carcinoma, both of which are very rare. Thymus cancer is more aggressive and more difficult to treat than thymic carcinoma. Thymic carcinoma is also known as type C thymoma.

Symptoms and signs of thymus cancer

The thymus is located in the centre of the chest, near the airways, and near some blood vessels. Tumors in the thymus can press on nearby structures and cause symptoms such as:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Cough (brings bloody sputum)
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Lack of appetite
  • Weightloss

The thymus is located near the superior vena cava, the main blood vessel that carries blood from the head and upper body to the heart. Tumors pressed against this vessel can cause symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome, including:

  • Swelling of the face, neck, and upper chest, sometimes blue
  • Inflammation of the veins found in this part of the body.
  • Headache
  • You feel dizzy or lightheaded.
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes

These are conditions that are related to cancer but are not caused directly by the tumor mass. For example, people with thymoma can develop autoimmune diseases in which the immune system begins to attack the body. Part of the normal function of the thymus is to help control the immune system, which can help explain why this happens.

  • Mastenia gravis: 30% to 65% of people with thymoma also have masthenia gravis (MG). It is by far the most common autoimmune disease associated with thymomas. In this disease, the immune system forms antibodies that block the chemical signals that tell the muscles to move. It can cause severe muscle weakness. Easy for those with angi tires. They may notice problems like climbing stairs or walking long distances.

Although patients have reduced muscle strength throughout the body, symptoms caused by muscle weakness in the eyes, neck, and chest can be quite embarrassing. Eye muscle weakness can cause blurred or double vision and drooping of the eyelids, while neck muscle weakness can lead to swallowing problems. The weakness of the chest and diaphragm muscles can cause shortness of breath and shortness of breath.

Most people with thymoma have MG, but most people with MG do not have thymoma. Most people with MG have other noncancerous thymus abnormalities. Mastenia gravis can be treated by removing the thymus (whether there is a thymoma or not) or with medications that strengthen chemical signals to the muscle or weaken the immune attack on the muscle.

  • Red blood cell aplasia: Red blood cell aplasia, in which the body’s ability to make new red blood cells is severely reduced and occurs in up to 5% of patients with thymoma. Decreased production of red blood cells causes anemia (low red blood cell count). Symptoms of anemia include weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Removal of the thymus is a common treatment.
  • Hypogammaglobulinemia: Hypogammaglobulinemia is a disorder in which the body produces small amounts of infection-fighting antibodies (also known as gamma globulins). It can infect a person. Hypogammaglobulinemia develops in 5% to 10% of patients with thymoma. Approximately 10% of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia have thymoma. Removing the thymus does not help correct the disease.

Other autoimmune diseases: Many other autoimmune diseases are also associated with thymoma or hypogammaglobulinemia or thymus cancer. Some examples:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Polymyositis
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Arthritis
  • Sjogren’s syndrome (Sjagren)
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Scleroderma

Most people with these autoimmune diseases do not have thymoma.

Risk factors

Any risk factor that affects the possibility of contracting a disease such as cancer. Different types of cancer have different risk factors. For example, exposure to strong sunlight can increase the risk of skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer and more.

But risk factors don’t tell us everything. Having a known risk factor or multiple risk factors does not mean that you will get the thymus cancer. And most people who get the disease may not have known risk factors.

Specific hereditary, environmental, or lifestyle risk factors are not strongly associated with thymoma or thymic carcinoma. Some studies have suggested radiation exposure to the upper chest, but this has not been confirmed. Age and race are the only known risk factors.


A routine physical exam will be done to see if you have any unusual results, such as lumps. Other tests are used to diagnose thymus cancer:

  • Chest x-ray
  • Imaging tests such as PET, CT, and MRI
  • Biopsy with microscopic examination of thymus cells.
  • The staging system is a method of classifying cancer based on its size, extent, and other characteristics.

Depending on the size of the tumor (T), the spread of lymph nodes (N), and the presence of cancer metastases (M), thymus cancer is shown by a TNM staging system that manages the disease from stage 4 to stage1.

Stage 1 is not vascular, but in stage 4, cancer has spread to distant organs such as the liver or kidneys.  as well as your overall health.

Thymus cancer treatment

Giving them a unique advantage over other medical centres in treating these types of thymus cancers. Stanford’s medical oncology team has a special focus on thymic malignancy and is actively involved in the international interest group on thymic malignancy, as well as conducting clinical trials on these diseases.

The most common surgical incision to remove a thymoma is a median sternotomy. It is a vertical incision through the sternum, which provides excellent exposure of the anterior mediastinum. Since the muscles of the chest wall are not cut with this incision, the postoperative pain will be mild and the recovery will not belong.

Minor thymomas can be treated with Watts (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery thymectomy), but this is a growing area that is at the forefront of our minds as we carefully approach patient safety. We are in the most experienced centres in transcervical thymectomy for mastenia gravis, but we believe that this procedure should be assigned mainly to patients who do not have a thymoma; It should not be used for more than one given small thymoma (less than 2 cm) at risk of tumor cell rupture.


Diagnosis and Treatments of Pemphigus | Dermatology

What is pemphigus?

Pemphigus is a group of skin disorders that cause pus-filled blisters or bumps. The lesions usually develop on the skin, but they also form on the mucous membranes (soft lining of the eyes, nose, mouth, throat, and genitals). The blisters are soft and easily break open to painful sores. Without treatment, they can spread to large areas of the body and the risk of infection is high.

Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease that occurs in healthy individuals. It is sometimes confused with other blistering autoimmune skin diseases such as bullous pemphigoid, lupus erythematosus, and helicopter-borne disease. Pemphigus is not contagious. It is a life-long condition that can be controlled with ongoing medical treatment.

Causes of pemphigus

Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease. This means that your immune system is attacking cells in your body – in this case, skin cells. In rare cases, certain drugs can trigger the disease. These include penicillin and some medications for rheumatoid arthritis. But for the most part, we don’t know what caused it. It is not contagious.

The immune system makes proteins called antibodies. Antibodies usually attack harmful foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. Pemphigus Vulgaris occurs when the immune system mistakenly makes antibodies against proteins in healthy skin and mucous membranes.

Antibodies break the bonds between cells and collect fluid between the layers of the skin. This can lead to blisters and cuts on the skin. The exact cause of the immune system attack is unknown. Very rarely, some medications cause Pemphigus Vulgaris. These medications include:

  • Penicillin, a chelating agent that removes certain substances from the blood.
  • ACE inhibitors are a type of blood pressure medication.

Symptoms of pemphigus

Pemphigus causes blisters on the skin and mucous membranes. The blisters rupture easily and open sores appear, which dissolve and become infected.

The signs and symptoms of the two most common types of pemphigus are as follows:

  • Pemphigus foliaceus: This type causes blisters on the chest, back, and shoulders. Blisters are more itchy than painful. Pemphigus foliaceus is not the cause of mouth blisters.
  • Pemphigus Vulgaris: This type usually begins with blisters in the mouth and then on the skin or genital mucosa. The blisters are usually painful but do not itch. Blisters in the mouth or throat can make swallowing and ingestion difficult.
  • Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP): PNP is associated with certain types of cancer. Blisters from inside the mouth and affect the lungs, which can lead to a fatal outcome. Sores to the mouth, lips, and esophagus are almost always present and various skin lesions occur. PNP affects the lungs. In some patients, the diagnosis prompts doctors to look for a hidden tumor. In some patients, the tumor is benign and the disease improves if the tumor is removed surgically.
  • Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP): MMP affects the eyes, mouth, and throat. The clinical form of pemphigoid ocular psoriasis (OCP) can lead to blindness in respiratory compromise involving the deeper parts of the eyes and throat.
  • Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita: This type has blisters on the skin with no involvement of the mucous surfaces. The blisters are usually smaller than pemphigoid.
  • Bullous pemphigoid (BP): BP is limited to the skin where blisters appear mainly on the abdomen, groin, back, arms, and legs. The blisters can be itchy and painful.

Pemphigus is different from bullous pemphigoid, which is a vesicular skin condition that affects older people and can lead to death.


It defines the group of autoimmune intraepithelial bullae characterized by the loss of normal cellular synthesis (acantholysis) and the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies (mainly IgG) against epithelial synthesis molecules. It is divided into two main subtypes: Pemphigus Vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus.

However, there are many disorders such as IgA pemphigus, IgE pemphigus, pemphigus herpetiformis, drug-induced pemphigus, major usher syndrome, and local pemphigus foliaceus; The dermatologist identified by the appearance and distribution of skin lesions.

Otolaryngology – It is also diagnosed by specialists in head and neck surgery, periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and ophthalmologists as the lesions affect the eyes and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. Internally, it is similar to the common diseases called lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid.

An accurate diagnosis requires a skin or mucosa biopsy performed by a dermatologist or oral pathologist. A skin biopsy is taken from the border of the bleb, prepared for histopathology, and examined under a microscope. The pathologist looks for an intraepidermal vesicle caused by the separation of epidermal cells (acantholysis).

Thus, the superficial (upper) part of the epidermis slags, leaving the lower layer of cells on the “floor” of the vesicle. This lower layer of cells has a “serious appearance.”

The appearance of anti-desmoglein antibodies by direct immunofluorescence on skin biopsy also requires an accurate diagnosis. These antibodies appear as IgG deposits along the desmosomes between epidermal cells, reminiscent of wire mesh. Anti-desmoglein antibodies can also be detected in a blood sample using the ELISA technique.

Treatment for pemphigus

People with moderate to severe illness are hospitalized. In the hospital, raw skin surfaces require extraordinary care, similar to that given to those who suffer severe burns. Antibiotics may be needed to treat infections in broken blisters. The dressing protects the soluble and raw areas.

High doses of corticosteroids are essential for treatment. They can be taken orally (oral) or intravenously (intravenously) if the person is hospitalized. If the disease is controlled, the dose of corticosteroids is gradually reduced (damaged).

The drug also suppresses immunity (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, or rituximab) if the person does not respond to treatment or the illness worsens when the dose is damaged. Immunosuppressive drugs may also be given to reduce the need for corticosteroids in people who need corticosteroids for a long time or in high doses.

Intravenous immune globulin is another treatment used for acute Pemphigus Vulgaris. Some respond well to discontinuation of drug treatment, while others may need to continue taking higher doses of the drug.


It can cause many serious problems. In all of them:

  • Circulatory infections (sepsis)
  • Can lead to an inability to eat, weight loss, and malnutrition
  • Skin infections
  • Depression
  • Some forms of the disease can lead to death if left untreated

The medicines you take for pemphigus can also cause serious side effects. They understand:

  • Low bone density (osteoporosis)
  • Arterial hypertension
  • Infections
  • Rashes

At least 75% of people with this disease have no evidence of complete remission or disease after 10 years of treatment. Some people need to take medicine for the rest of their lives to prevent pemphigus symptoms from coming back.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of dermatology

Causes and Diagnosis of Skin Tags | Dermatology

What are skin tags?

Skin tags are painless, cancer-free skin growth. They are attached to the skin by a small, thin stalk called a peduncle. Skin tags mostly occur after age 50 and are common in both men and women. They can appear anywhere on your body, although they are usually found in areas where your skin folds:

  • Armpits
  • Groin
  • Thighs
  • Eyelids
  • Neck
  • The area under your breasts

Causes of skin tags

Insulin resistance, which leads to type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, also plays a role in the development of skin tags. People with insulin resistance do not effectively absorb glucose from the bloodstream. According to a 2010 study, the presence of multiple skin tags was associated with insulin resistance, high body mass index, and high triglycerides.

Skin tags can occur during pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones and weight gain can cause this. In rare cases, multiple skin tags can be a sign of a hormonal imbalance or an endocrine problem. Skin tags are not contagious. There may be a genetic connection. It is not uncommon for several family members to have them.

Risk factors

Skin tags are most common in:

  • Overweight and outstanding people
  • People with diabetes
  • In women during pregnancy, it can be due to hormonal changes and high levels of growth factors.
  • People with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • People with sex steroid imbalances, especially if there are changes in estrogen and progesterone levels.
  • Her close relatives also have marks on their skin.

Removal issues

  • Scarring can occur with improper skin tag removal.
  • Sometimes normal skin tissue can be removed, causing changes in cosmeceuticals. Therefore, it is necessary to seek the help of an experienced doctor.
  • Mild irritation and irritation may also occur at the site of skin tag removal.
  • In rare cases, if a nerve growth is cut on the skin tag, chronic pain can last for weeks or even months.


Whenever you notice a new bump or mark on your genitals, it’s a good idea to see your doctor confirm what it is. There is no risk of passing a sexually transmitted infection to another person or living with an easily treatable STI.

Women should make an appointment with an OB / GYN or GP. Although skin tags on the penis are rare, men can make an appointment with their regular doctor. At the appointment, you will be asked some questions about your sexual activity and family history. If you have recently had a new sexual partner, you may be asked if you would like a blood test to check for other STIs.

After finding out if there are other risk factors at play, your doctor will leave the room while you dress up. Upon your return, the doctor will examine Bump to tell you if it is a benign skin tag or if any other tests are needed. You can also advise on knock removal options if you are interested.

Treatment for skin tags

Your doctor can remove the mole or skin tag in any of these ways:

  • Cutting: Skin tags can be removed with a scalpel or surgical scissors. Some moles can be “shaved” without turning red on the skin. Other moles may contain cells that go under the skin, so your doctor may make a deep incision to remove the entire mole and prevent it from growing back. This incision may require stitches.
  • Freezing: Your doctor will wipe or spray a small amount of super cool liquid nitrogen on the mole or skin tag. You may have a small blister where there is a mole or a mark on your skin, but it will heal on its own.
  • Burning it off: An electrical current passes through a wire, which is heated and used to burn layers of skin. Various treatments are suggested to remove a mole. Skin tags are removed by burning them through a narrow stalk that is attached to the skin. Help prevent heat bleeding.


There are only a few things a person can do to delay the development of skin tags. Reducing friction is a key factor where labels are developed. Collars are one of the most common skin tags on the neck.

The friction under the arms promotes the growth of tags in that area. Friction reducing powders or powdered deodorants can help reduce irritation that can cause labels under hands to grow faster.


The leather tag looks like a twist on your pedal. In many cases, people with these arrhythmias are at increased risk for inflammation.

What can I do about them?

You don’t have to do anything about it if the skin tag doesn’t bother you. You should talk to your doctor about treatment if your skin tag is irritating or you don’t like the way it looks.

Most skin tags can be easily removed. Your doctor can remove small growths by cutting at the base with scissors or a scalpel. Larger growths may require local anaesthesia but can be removed in your doctor’s office. Some doctors and dermatologists may use cryotherapy to freeze the skin tag.

Regardless of the situation, you shouldn’t try to remove your skin tag on your own, as home remedies can cause bleeding or infection. They are not medically recommended

Home remedies for skin tag removal are not well-proven

Although home remedies are available, their efficacy largely does not support narrative and important data. Some commercial kits have ligature bandages that can be placed around the base of the skin tags, cutting off their circulation and causing them to fall off.

Home “freeze” kits are also available but generally require multiple applications. Tea tree oil and apple cider vinegar are also used to treat skin tags; however, there is little research data to support its effectiveness. Also, these substances often cause skin irritation. Tea tree oil, in particular, is known to cause allergic skin reactions in some people.


Diagnosis and Treatments of Mesothelioma | Oncology

What is mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is a kind of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue that covers most internal organs (mesothelium). This is an aggressive and terminal form of cancer. There are treatments for this cancer, but for many people with mesothelioma, a cure is not possible.

Physicians divide this cancer into different types based on the part of the mesothelium unnatural. Mesothelioma most often affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs (pleura). This type is called pleural mesothelioma. Other rarer types of mesothelioma affect the tissue in the abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), around the heart, and the testicles.

Types of mesothelioma

There are four types of malignant mesothelioma depending on the location of the tumor:

  • Pleural mesothelioma (lungs)
  • Peritoneal (abdomen) mesothelioma
  • Pericardial (heart) mesothelioma
  • Testicular mesothelioma

Symptoms of mesothelioma

The signs and symptoms of mesothelioma vary depending on the site of cancer.

Pleural mesothelioma, which affects the tissue around the lungs, causes signs and symptoms that may include:

  • Chest pain
  • Painful cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Unusual lumps of tissue under the skin of the chest
  • Unexplained weight loss

Peritoneal mesothelioma, which occurs in the tissue of the abdomen, causes signs and symptoms that may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Nausea
  • Unexplained weight loss

Other forms of mesothelioma

The signs and symptoms of other kinds of this cancer are unclear, as these forms of the disease are very rare.

  • Pericardial mesothelioma, which affects the tissue around the heart, can cause signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath and chest pains.
  • Tunica vaginalis mesothelioma, which affects the tissue surrounding the testicles, may first be perceived as swelling or a mass in a testicle.

Causes of mesothelioma

Overall, cancer begins when a series of changes (mutations) occur in the DNA of a cell. DNA contains the commands that tell a cell what to do. Mutations tell the cell to grow and multiply uncontrollably. The abnormal cells build up and form a tumor.

It is not clear what causes the initial genetic changes that lead to this cancer, though researchers have identified factors that may increase the risk. Cancers are likely to form due to an interaction between many factors, such as inherited conditions, your environment, your health conditions, and your lifestyle choices.

Risk factors

The main risk factor for mesothelioma are:

  • Most mesotheliomas are believed to be related to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is a mineral that happens naturally in the environment. Asbestos fibres are strong and resistant to heat, making them valuable in a wide variety of applications, such as separation, brakes, shingles, flooring, and many other products.
  • When asbestos breaks, such as during the extraction process or when removing asbestos insulation, dust can be created. If the dust is gasped or ingested, the asbestos fibres will settle in the lungs or stomach, where they can cause irritation that can lead to mesothelioma. It is not understood exactly how this happens. Mesothelioma can take 20 to 60 years or more to develop after asbestos exposure.
  • Most people exposed to asbestos never develop mesothelioma. This indicates that other issues may be involved in determining whether someone gets mesothelioma. For example, you could inherit a predisposition to cancer, or some other condition could increase your risk.

Factors that can increase the risk of mesothelioma contain:

  • Personal history of asbestos exposure: If you have been directly exposed to asbestos fibres at work or home, your risk of mesothelioma increases considerably.
  • Live with someone who works with asbestos: People who are exposed to asbestos can carry the fibres home on their skin and clothing. Exposure to these stray fibres over many years can put other people in the home at risk for mesothelioma. People who work with high levels of asbestos can reduce the risk of bringing asbestos fibres home by showering and changing clothes before leaving work.
  • Family history of mesothelioma: If your parent, brother, or child has mesothelioma, you may be at higher risk for this disease.
  • Radiation therapy to the chest: If you received radiation therapy for breast cancer, you may have an increased risk of this cancer.

Diagnosis of mesothelioma

If you have signs and symptoms that could indicate mesothelioma, your doctor will perform a physical exam to check for lumps or other unusual signs. Your doctor may order imaging scans, such as a chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan of your chest or abdomen, to look for abnormalities. Based on the findings, you may undergo further tests to determine if mesothelioma or another disease is causing your symptoms.


Biopsy, a procedure to remove a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination, is the only way to determine if you have mesothelioma. Depending on which area of ​​your body is affected, your doctor selects the biopsy procedure that is right for you.

Options include:

  • Insert a needle through the skin. The doctor may remove fluid or a piece of tissue with a fine needle that is inserted through the skin of the chest or abdomen.
  • Collection of a tissue sample during surgery. A sample of fluid or tissue may be collected during operation. The surgeon may make a small incision and insert a tube with a video camera to view the inside of your chest or abdomen. Special tools can be passed to finish the tube to collect a tissue sample.
  • The tissue sample is examined under a microscope to see if the abnormal tissue is mesothelioma and what types of cells are involved. The sort of cancer you have determines your treatment plan.

Determine the extent of the cancer

Once your mesothelioma is confirmed, your doctor may mention additional tests to find out if your cancer has spread to your lymph nodes or other areas of your body.

The tests may include:

  • CT scans of the chest and abdomen
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)

Your doctor determines which tests are right for you. Not all people need all tests. Your doctor uses the information from these tests to stage cancer. The stages of pleural mesothelioma are indicated by Roman numerals ranging from I to IV. A lower number means that the cancer is more likely to be in the area around the lungs, and a higher number means that cancer has spread to other areas of the body.

The staging system for cancer continues to evolve and becomes more complex as doctors improve their diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Your doctor uses the stage of cancer to select the right treatments for you. The formal stages are not available for other types of mesothelioma.

Treatment of mesothelioma

The treatment you undergo for this cancer rests on your health and certain aspects of your cancer, such as its stage and location.

Unluckily, It is often an aggressive disease, and for most people, a cure is not possible. This cancer is usually diagnosed at a progressive stage when cancer cannot be detached by surgery. Instead, your doctor can work to control your cancer so that you feel more comfortable.

Discuss the goals of treatment with your doctor. Some people want to do everything they can to treat their cancer, even if it means enduring side effects for a small chance of improvement. Others prefer treatments that make them feel comfortable so they can live as long as possible free of symptoms.


Surgeons work to eliminate this cancer when it is diagnosed at an early stage. In some cases, this can cure cancer. Most of the time, all of cancer cannot be removed. In this situation, surgery can help reduce the signs and symptoms caused by the spread of this cancer in your body.

Surgical options may include:

  • Surgery to decrease fluid build-up. Pleural mesothelioma can cause fluid to build up in the chest, causing shortness of breath. Surgeons insert a tube or catheter into your chest to gutter the fluid. Doctors may also inject medicine into your chest to keep the fluid from coming back (pleurodesis).
  • Surgery to eliminate the tissue around the lungs. Surgeons can remove the tissue that lines the ribs and lungs (pleurectomy). This procedure will not cure this disease, but it can relieve the signs and symptoms.
  • Surgery to eliminate a lung and surrounding tissue. Removal of the affected lung and surrounding tissue can alleviate the signs and symptoms of pleural mesothelioma. If you will receive radiation therapy to the chest after surgery, this procedure also allows doctors to use higher doses, as they won’t have to worry about protecting your lung from harmful radiation.
  • Peritoneal mesothelioma surgery. This is sometimes preserved with surgery to eliminate as much cancer as possible. Chemotherapy can be used before or after surgery.


Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Systemic chemotherapy travels throughout the body and can reduce or slow the growth of this cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. Chemotherapy can also be used before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) to make the operation easier or after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) to reduce the chance that cancer will come back.

Chemotherapy drugs can also be heated and given directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal chemotherapy), in the case of peritoneal mesothelioma.


Radiation therapy focuses on high-energy rays from sources such as X-rays and protons to a specific point or points on your body. Radiation can be used after surgery to kill any outstanding cancer cells. It can also help reduce the signs and symptoms of progressive cancer in situations where surgery is not an option.

Other treatments

In certain situations, other treatments can be used to treat this cancer. Other treatments include:

  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. Your body’s disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer because cancer cells make proteins that blunt immune system cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with this process. This treatment might be an option if other treatments don’t work.
  • Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy uses drugs that target specific vulnerabilities in cancer cells. These drugs are not commonly used to treat this disease, but your doctor may recommend targeted therapy based on the results of DNA testing of the tumor.

Clinical trials

Clinical trials are studies of new methods of treating this disease. People with this cancer may opt for a clinical trial for a chance to test new types of treatment. However, a cure is not guaranteed. Carefully consider your treatment options and talk to your doctor about the quantifiable trials you have open. Taking part in a clinical trial can help doctors better understand how to treat this cancer in the future.

Currently, clinical trials are investigating several new approaches to the treatment of this cancer, including new targeted therapy drugs and new approaches to immunotherapy.

Treatment for other types of mesothelioma

Pericardial mesothelioma and tunica vaginalis mesothelioma are very rare. Early-stage cancer can be removed by surgery. However, doctors have yet to determine the best way to treat late-stage cancers.


Reducing your exposure to asbestos can lower your risk of this disease. Find out if you work with asbestos. Most societies with this cancer were exposed to asbestos fibres at work. Workers who may encounter asbestos fibres include:

  • Asbestos miners
  • Electricians
  • Plumbers
  • Filters for pipes
  • Insulators
  • Shipyard workers
  • Demolition workers
  • Brake mechanics
  • Selected military personnel
  • Home remodelers
  • Ask your employer if you are at risk for asbestos exposure at work.
  • Follow your employer’s safety rules
  • Follow all safety precautions in your workplace, such as wearing protective gear. You may also need to shower and change your work clothes before taking a lunch break or going home.


As pleural mesothelioma feasts in the chest, it puts pressure on structures in that area. This can cause complications, such as:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty to swallow
  • Pain caused by heaviness on the nerves and spinal cord

A buildup of fluid in the chest (pleural effusion), which can compress the nearby lung and make it difficult to breathe.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of oncology

Symptoms and Treatments of Cellulitis | Dermatology

What is cellulitis?

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin and the tissues under the skin. Unlike impetigo, it is a very superficial skin infection, cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that also affects the deeper layers of the skin: the skin and the subcutaneous tissue.

The main bacteria responsible for cellulitis are streptococcus and staphylococcus (“personal”), the same bacteria that cause impetigo and other illnesses. MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staff Air) can also cause cellulitis. Sometimes other bacteria (for example, Haemophilus influenza, pneumococcus, and clostridium) can also cause cellulitis.

This is very common and affects people of all races and ages. Men and women are equally affected. Although cellulitis can occur at any age, it is most common in middle-aged and older people. This is not an infection.

Types of cellulitis

There are different types of cellulitis depending on where the infection is occurring.

Some types include:

  • Periorbital cellulitis, which develops around the eyes
  • Perianal cellulitis, which develops around the anal socket
  • Facial cellulitis, which develops around the eyes, nose, and cheeks
  • Breast cellulitis

Cellulite can occur anywhere on the body, including the hands and feet. Adults develop cellulitis in the leg, while children develop it on the face or neck.

Causes of cellulitis

Cellulitis occurs when bacteria, usually streptococcus, and staphylococcus, enter the skin through cracks or fissures. The incidence of a more serious staphylococcus infection known as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing.

Although cellulite can occur anywhere on your body, the most common location is the lower leg. You may have recent surgeries, cuts, puncture wounds, ulcers, athlete’s foot, or dermatitis where bacteria can get into the affected areas of the skin. Animal bites can cause cellulitis. Bacteria can also enter through dry, scaly, or inflamed skin.

The infection begins in skin lesions:

  • Bug bites
  • Surgical wounds
  • Cuts

Risk factors

Most often, cellulite develops in an area where the skin is broken, such as a cut, small puncture wound, or an insect bite. In some cases, when cellulitis develops without noticeable skin damage, it can become inflamed or irritated by microscopic cracks in the skin. It can also appear on the skin near wounds or surgical wounds.

In other cases, cellulite occurs where the skin does not break down, such as chronic edema. Pre-existing skin infections such as athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) or impetigo may be a risk factor for developing cellulitis. Likewise, skin diseases such as inflammatory medical conditions or skin damage caused by eczema, psoriasis, or radiation therapy can lead to this disease.

People with diabetes or diseases that compromise the function of the immune system (for example, HIV / AIDS or chemotherapy or drugs that suppress the immune system) are more likely to develop cellulite in particular.

Conditions or illnesses that reduce blood flow through the veins or reduce the amount of lymphatic fluid (such as venous insufficiency, esophagus, pregnancy, or surgery) can also increase the risk of this disease.

Symptoms of cellulitis

Cellulite usually appears as an area of red, swollen, and painful skin that is warm and smooth to the touch. The skin may look itchy like orange peel or blisters may appear on the affected skin. Some people may also have a fever and chills. Cellulite can appear anywhere on the body, but it is most common on the legs and feet.

The signs and symptoms of cellulite usually appear on one side of the body:

  • The red area of the skin expands
  • Tight, glossy, swollen skin
  • Tenderness
  • Pain
  • Warmth
  • Skin dimpling
  • Blisters
  • Red spots
  • Fever
  • An abscess with pus
  • Sweating
  • Shaking
  • Lightheadedness
  • Red streaks

Diagnosis of cellulitis

Your doctor will take a medical history and a physical exam. Other policies may include:

  • The doctor uses a needle to remove fluid from the area and send it to the lab.
  • A blood test if they think the infection has spread to your blood.
  • X-ray if there is a foreign object on your skin or if the bone underneath is infected.

Treatment for cellulitis

Antibiotics are taken orally for 5 to 14 days in the treatment of this disease. Your doctor may also prescribe pain relievers. Rest until your symptoms improve. Elevate the affected organ higher than your heart to reduce inflammation.

Cellulite should go away within 7-10 days of starting to take antibiotics. If your infection is severe due to a chronic illness or a weakened immune system, you may need additional treatment. Even if your symptoms improve within a few days, take all the antibiotics prescribed by your doctor. It takes care of all bacteria.

If doctors suspect a methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, such as when the pus dries up under the skin or develops other severe symptoms, treatment may include antibiotics such as trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, or oral doxycycline. People with mild cellulitis can take antibiotics by mouth.

Symptoms of this disease usually go away after a few days of antibiotic therapy. However, before the symptoms of cellulitis improve, they get worse because, along with bacterial death, substances that cause tissue damage are released.

When this release occurs, the body continues to respond even though the bacteria are dead. Antibiotics are continued for 10 days or more if symptoms do not appear early.

Contact your doctor if:

  • You may not feel better within 3 days after starting the antibiotics
  • You have a fever
  • Your symptoms will intensify

Home remedies

Cellulite can be treated with antibiotics that you can get from your doctor. Without treatment, it can spread and cause a fatal infection. But there are things you can do at home to relieve pain and other symptoms.

Cleanse your skin where you have cellulite. Ask your doctor how to properly clean your wound. If your leg is affected, raise it to the level of your heart. Helps reduce inflammation and pain.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of dermatology