Causes and Treatments of Alopecia Areata | Dermatology

What is alopecia areata?

Alopecia areata is a condition that causes hair loss in small patches, which is undetectable. These patches may be connected, but they may be recognizable. The condition worsens when the immune system attacks the hair follicles, resulting in hair loss. Sudden loss of hair on the scalp and in some cases on the eyebrows, eyelashes, and face, as well as on other parts of the body. It grows slowly and recurs years later between cases.

This condition can lead to hair loss, which is called alopecia universals and can prevent hair growth. When hair grows back, the hair is more likely to grow back. Hair loss and growth vary from person to person.

There is currently no treatment for alopecia areata. However, there are treatments that can help hair grow back quickly and prevent future hair loss, as well as specialized ways to cover hair loss. Resources are also available to help people cope with the stress of hair loss.

Symptoms of alopecia areata

The first common symptoms of alopecia areata are small bald patches. The underlying skin is dull and the surface is normally visible. Although these patches can take many shapes, they are usually round or oval. Alopecia areata most commonly affects the skin and chin but can occur with hair on any part of the body. Different areas of the skin show hair loss and regrowth at the same time.

The disease may go into remission for some time or may be permanent. It is common in children. The area of ​​hair that falls out may feel tingly or sore. Hair falls out in a short period of time, damage usually occurs on one side of the scalp more than the other. The exclamation point hairs, narrow along the strand, produce a characteristic “exclamation point” appearance, which is seen often. These hairs are very short (3-4 mm) and can be seen around bald spots.

When the healthy hair is pulled out, very little should come out and the split hair should not be evenly distributed over the pulled part of the scalp. In alopecia areata, hairs come out more easily along the edge of the patch, where the follicles are attacked by the body’s immune system, separating them from the still healthy patch. The nails may have pitting or tracheonicity.

Causes of alopecia areata

Current evidence suggests that alopecia areata can damage hair follicles due to abnormalities in the immune system. This particular abnormality leads to autoimmunity, which is a deceptive immune system that attacks one’s body. As a result, the immune system attacks certain tissues in the body.

In alopecia areata, for unknown reasons, the body’s own immune system attacks the hair follicles and interferes with normal hair formation. Biopsies of the affected skin show that immune lymphocytes have penetrated the hair bulb of the hair follicles. Alopecia areata is occasionally associated with other autoimmune conditions such as:

  1. Thyroid disease
  2. Vitiligo
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis
  4. Ulcerative colitis
  5. Lupus

The diagnosis or treatment of these conditions is unlikely to affect the course of alopecia areata. Alopecia areata sometimes occurs in members of the arena family, indicating the role of genes.


Although there are some treatments prescribed by doctors to help hair grow back quickly, there is currently no treatment for alopecia areata. The most common form of treatment for alopecia areata is corticosteroids, powerful anti-inflammatory drugs that can suppress the immune system. These are administered primarily topically with injections, topical ointment application, or by mouth.

Other medications that promote hair growth or affect the immune system include minoxidil, anthralin, SADBE, and DPCP. Some of these help hair grow back, which does not prevent the formation of new bald patches. The use of photochemotherapy is supported by some studies and provides a potential alternative for patients who are reluctant or unwilling to use aggressive or systemic therapies.

In addition to its aesthetic factor, it offers some protection against the elements of the hair. People with alopecia areata who lose the protective properties of the hair look for:

  • Use headwear such as hats, wigs, and scarves to protect the head from the sun or keep it warm.
  • Wear sunscreen if you are out in the sun.
  • Use an ointment on the inside of the nose to keep the membranes moist and to protect yourself from organisms typically trapped by nasal hairs.
  • Wear round glasses to protect the eyes from the sun and debris that usually protects the eyebrows and lashes.

It is not directly contagious to people, nor is it contagious. However, mentally getting used to it is difficult. For many, it is a traumatic condition that requires treatment to address the emotional aspect of hair loss, as well as hair loss. There are support and counselling groups available for people to share their thoughts and feelings and discuss common psychological reactions. To the situation.

Some have compared alopecia areata to vitiligo, an autoimmune skin disease in which the body attacks melanin-producing cells, resulting in white patches. Research suggests that both conditions can be caused by similar immune cells and cytokines that lead to common genetic risk factors and diseases.

Treatment of alopecia areata with the contact sensitizer defensin (DCP) There are some documented cases that have led to the development of vitiligo. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid naturally found in fruits and vegetables in basic animal research, can protect against the development of alopecia areata and effectively treat existing hair loss. Before alopecia areata can be considered for treatment with quercetin, more research is needed, including clinical trials in humans.


Doctors can usually easily diagnose alopecia areata by examining the symptoms. They can see the level of hair loss and examine the hair in the affected areas under a microscope.

If, after a preliminary clinical examination, the doctor is not able to make a diagnosis, he may perform a skin biopsy. If they need to rule out other autoimmune diseases, they can have a blood test. Because the symptoms of alopecia areata are so distinctive, diagnosis is usually quick and straight forward.


Types of Bone cancer | Treatment Options | Oncology

Overview of bone cancer

Bone cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the bone are out of control. It destroys normal bone tissue. It starts in your bone or spreads to other parts of your body (called metastasis).

Bone cancer is very rare. Most bone tumors are benign, which means they are not cancerous and do not spread to other parts of your body. But they can still weaken your bones and lead to broken bones or other problems.

There are some common types of benign bone tumors:

  • Osteoporosis is the most common. It often occurs in people under the age of 20.
  • The giant cell tumor is usually on your leg. In rare cases, these can also be cancerous.
  • Osteoid osteoma often presents in the long bones, usually in the 20s.
  • Osteoblastoma is a rare tumor that grows in the spine and long bones, mainly in young people.

Enchondroma usually appears in the bones of the hands and feet. Often it has no symptoms. It is also known as primary bone cancer. Primary bone tumors are tumors that originate in bone tissue and can be benign or malignant (bone cancer). Benign (non-cancerous) tumors are more common in bone than bone cancer.

When bone cancer is found, it originates in the bone (similar to primary bone cancer) or spreads to the bone after birth elsewhere (bone metastasis or secondary cancer). In fact, when bone cancer is found, most of the time it is a metastasis that begins in another organ or part of the body and spreads to the bone.

This cancer with bone metastases gets its name from where original cancer started (for example, metastatic prostate cancer that has spread to the bone). Breast, prostate, and lung cancers are some of the most common bone cancers that develop. Less commonly, cancer begins within the bone as primary bone cancer and is true bone cancer. Metastatic primary and secondary bone cancers are often treated differently and have a different prognosis.

Although they are not considered true bone cancers, other cancers begin in the bones. Lymphoma is a cancer of the cells that trigger the body’s immune response. Lymphoma usually begins in the lymph nodes, but sometimes it begins in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma is another immune cell cancer that usually begins in the bone marrow. These tumors are not considered primary bone cancers because they are not derived from the original bone cells.

Bone cancer types

They are formed directly in surrounding tissues, such as bone or cartilage. Cancer can also spread or metastasize to your bones from another part of your body. This is called secondary bone cancer, and this type is more common than primary bone cancer.

Common types of primary bone cancers:

  • Multiple myeloma (MM): Multiple myeloma is multiple types of bone cancer. MM usually affects the elderly. Among bone cancers, MM is one of the best diagnoses, and most people with it do not need treatment.
  • Osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma): It tends to arise at the tips of the long bones of the arms and legs. Osteosarcoma can also start in the hips, shoulders, or other areas. It affects the hard tissue that provides the outer layer of bones.
  • Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma can occur in the pelvis, thighs, and shoulders of the elderly. It forms in the subchondral tissue, which is the tight connective tissue between the bones. It is the second most common primary cancer-associated with bones.
  • Ewing’s sarcoma: Ewing sarcoma is a rare cancer that begins directly in the soft tissues around the bones or in the bones of children and adolescents. The long bones of the body, such as the arms, legs, and pelvis, are often affected.

Causes of bone cancer

Bone cancers are classified into specific types based on the number of cells that started cancer. In this tumor, cancer cells make new bone tissue. This type of bone cancer occurs most often in children and adolescents, in the bones of the leg or arm. In rare cases, osteoporosis (extracranial osteosarcoma) can occur outside the bone.

The most common types of bone cancer are:

  • Chondrosarcoma: The second most common form of bone cancer is chondrosarcoma. In this tumor, cancer cells make cartilage.
  • Ewing’s sarcoma: Ewing sarcoma tumors are most likely to occur in the pelvis, legs, or arms of children and adolescents.

Bone cancer symptoms & signs


First, the pain is not constant. It can be worse at night or when the bone is used, for example, pain in the legs when walking. As cancer progresses, pain is present at all times and becomes more intense with activity.


Swelling in the painful area may not occur until weeks later. It is possible to feel a lump or mass depending on where the tumor is. Cancers of the neck bones cause a lump in the back of the throat that makes it difficult to swallow or make it difficult to breathe.


Bone cancer weakens the bone it is in, but most do not break (break). People with a fracture to the side or through a bone tumor usually describe sudden severe pain in the bone that has been sore for a few months.

Other details

Cancer in the bones of the spine can cause stress, numbness, and tingling or weakness in the nerves. Cancer causes weight loss and fatigue. If cancer spreads to internal organs, it can cause other symptoms as well. For example, if cancer has spread to the lungs, it can cause shortness of breath.

These symptoms are more likely to be due to conditions other than cancer, such as injury or arthritis. However, if these problems persist for a long time without an unknown cause, you should see your doctor.

Risk factors

Any risk factor that affects the possibility of contracting a disease such as cancer. Different types of cancer have different risk factors. For example, exposure of the skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, bladder, kidneys, and many other organs. But being a risk factor or being too high doesn’t mean you get the disease.

Genetic defects

Retinoblastoma is a rare eye cancer in children that is inherited.  People with this mutation are also at risk for bone or soft tissue sarcomas. Also, if radiation therapy is used to treat retinoblastoma, the risk of developing osteoporosis in the bones around the eye is higher.

Finally, there are families with many members who have developed osteoporosis without inherited changes in known genes. The genetic defects that cause cancer in these families have not yet been identified.


These tumors are mainly made up of cartilage. They are painful and can cause deformities and/or broken bones. The disorder is caused by a mutation in any of the 3 genes EXT1, EXT2, or EXT3. Patients with this condition are at increased risk for chondrosarcoma.

Most of these tumors have a condition called multiple enchondromatosis. They are at risk of developing chondrosarcomas.


Chordomas seem to run in some families. changes on the chromosome. Patients with inherited tuberous sclerosis syndrome caused by defects (mutations) in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes appear to be at increased risk of developing cardiomas in childhood.

Paget’s disease

Paget’s disease is a benign (non-cancerous) non-cancerous condition that affects one or more bones. It leads to abnormal bone tissue formation and occurs most often in people over the age of 50. The affected bones are heavy, thick, and brittle. These are bones that are weaker than normal and are prone to fracture. For the most part, Paget’s disease is not fatal. Bone cancer (usually osteoporosis) develops in 1% of people with Paget’s disease, and generally affects most of the bones.


Bones exposed to ionizing radiation are also at risk for bone cancer. A typical bone X-ray is harmless, but exposure to large doses of radiation can be dangerous. Being treated at an early age and/or with high doses of radiation (usually more than 60 Gy) increases your risk of bone cancer.

Ionizing radiation, such as microwaves, power lines, mobile phones, and electromagnetic fields from appliances, do not increase the risk of bone cancer.

Preventive measures


People need to know their genes for a history of cancer and other risks that can affect their medical condition.

Skeletal fragility

It is very important to inform us about bone health so that further complications can be prevented for the prevention of bone diseases. Also, read more about risk factors for bone cancer.

Other diseases

Anyone suffering from osteoporosis needs an evaluation of the secondary causes of the disease.

Diet and nutrition

Maintaining a healthy and nutritious diet is essential to keep the body fit enough to deal with unnecessary problems.


Physical exercise and yoga are effective in curing diseases. It keeps the body circulating properly and helps prevent diseases.


Medications that prevent bone fractures are anti-absorbent for the most common bone diseases. These are effective in reducing the risk of future cracks. Both drugs prevent the skeleton from deteriorating and allow some repair and restoration of bone mass and strength.

Additionally, anabolic therapy can help build new bone and reduce the risk of more fractures. It prevents and treats osteoporosis, which is applicable to other bone diseases.

General understanding

There should be community programs and campaigns to educate people about bone cancer, its symptoms, causes, risks, and stages. People should be informed about medications that increase the risk of bone disease and prevent it.

Keep tobacco unrestricted

A healthy lifestyle is essential to prevent any type of cancer. Smoking is not something that will lead to a happier life without cancer.

Early diagnosis

Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment before metastasis. It is necessary to consult a doctor for screening and detection before the onset of a more damaging phase.


Imaging tests can help determine the location and size of a bone tumor and whether the tumor has spread to other parts of the body. The types of imaging tests recommended are based on your individual signs and symptoms. The exams may include:

  • Bone scan
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Bone scan

Bone cancer treatment

Treatment options for your bone cancer depend on the type of cancer you have, the stage of cancer, your general health, and your preferences.


In most cases, there are special techniques to remove the tumor in one piece, along with a small piece of healthy tissue. The surgeon will replace the lost bone with bone from another area of your body, from the bone bank, or with metal and hard plastic.

Bone cancers are very large or located in a complex area of the bone. Surgery may be required to remove all or part of the organ (amputation). As other treatments have been developed, amputation is less and less common. If amputation is required, you can have an artificial limb fitted and training to learn daily tasks with your new limb.


Chemotherapy involves the administration of drugs that kill cancer cells or prevent them from growing. However, this type of treatment works better for some types of bone cancer than others. For example, chemotherapy for chondrosarcoma is usually not very effective, but it is an important part of the treatment of osteoporosis and Ewing’s sarcoma.


During radiation therapy, a special machine moves around you and directs the energy beams to precise points on your body. Radiation therapy is often used before surgery because it can shrink the tumor and make it easier to remove. This helps reduce the chance that an amputation will be required.

Radiation therapy can also be used in people with bone cancer that cannot be removed surgically. After surgery, radiation therapy may be used to kill the remaining cancer cells. For people with advanced bone cancer, radiation therapy can help control signs and symptoms, such as pain.


Diagnosis and Treatments of Blackheads | Dermatology

What are blackheads?

Blackheads are one of the most common forms of acne. People with oily skin are more vulnerable to blackheads and anyone can get them. They form when pores become clogged with a combination of dead skin cells and excess oil (sebum) from the sebaceous glands.

Unlike whiteheads that create closed pores, blackheads have open surfaces that create darker coloured oxidation. He may try to pinch or push the black plug, but it can cause unwanted scarring and other damage to your skin.

“The good news is that over the counter products contain cornucopia, which has ingredients that are effective in exfoliating, softening and removing blackheads,” said by the doctor.

Keep reading to find out how to do it:

  • Prevent future training
  • Take good care of your skin
  • Get rid of your blackheads

Causes of blackheads

Certain factors increase the likelihood of developing blackheads. Age and hormonal changes are an important factor. As with other acne symptoms, blackheads are more common in adolescence, when changes in hormone levels trigger an increase in sebum production. However, they can appear at any age.

Androgen, the male sex hormone, stimulates increased sebum secretion and skin cell renewal around puberty. Both boys and girls experience high levels of androgens during adolescence. After puberty, hormonal changes associated with the use of menstruation, pregnancy, and oral contraceptives can also cause blackheads in women. Excessive production of skin cells by the body causes blackheads.

Other subjects:

  • Prevent or clog pores through cosmetics and clothing
  • Medications that promote rapid skin cell turnover.
  • Use of certain steroid-based medications such as corticosteroids
  • Intense sweat
  • Certain health conditions, such as stress, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • High humidity and grease in instantaneous weather
  • Shaving and other activities that open up hair follicles

Risk factors

Acne vulgaris is diagnosed early in the course and are an inflammatory skin disease that affects the face, back, and chest of almost all adolescents at puberty. These are considered the first sign of adolescent acne and contain inflammatory substances that trigger the acne process. Elastotic degeneration of the skin mainly affects the face, the areas exposed to sunlight.

Bumpy yellow deposits of depleted collagen are often present with numerous black dots. Chloracne is a condition caused by the absorption of dioxins, toxins that are often found as a by-product in the manufacture of herbicides and defoliants.

Comedones are found on the exposed skin of some workers exposed to insoluble cutting oils in the metal machining industry. Some topical hair products induce blackheads on the adjacent skin, resulting in what is known as “ointment pimples.” Makeup cosmetics may occasionally contain comedogenic ingredients.

Some anti-epileptic and antipsychotic drugs are thought to induce comedones. Some rare birthmarks called epithelial marine can have very blackheads. Sometimes the follicular orifice can be very dissected, filled with dried sebum and skin after which it is called the “big winner’s hole”.

Symptoms of blackheads

The main feature is the small dark sore that gives blackheads their name. Blackheads are a symptom of acne, but due to the open pores, they are different in some ways from other acne lesions. Inflammatory blackheads. This means that they are not infected and that they do not cause pain or discomfort like pimples and blisters. It has increased texture, but they are flatter than acne.

The visible change caused by pimples can lead to distress and social or psychological distress in some patients.

Sebaceous filaments: The sebaceous filaments look like black dots, but they are different. They appear on the nose. They are small, appear in clumps, and feel flat to the touch. The sebaceous filaments are glands that transmit the flow of sebum through the pores. Unlike blackheads, they are not a form of acne.


Your doctor confirms the pimples by looking at your skin. This includes examining your face, chest, and back for various types of scars such as blackheads or red lumps in your throat. This is very important in planning your treatment.

Four classes can be used to measure the severity of acne:

  • Grade 1 (mild) pimples are mostly limited to whiteheads and blackheads, with only a few papules and blisters
  • Grade 2 (moderate) there are multiple papules and pustules, which are mostly confined to the face
  • Grade 3 (moderately severe) has a large number of papules and blisters, as well as an occasional inflamed nodule, and the back and chest are also affected by acne
  • Grade 4 (severe) Large, painful rashes and a large number of nodules

Treatment for blackheads

  • Over the counter treatment: Many acne medications are available at drugstores and grocery stores and online without a prescription. These medications are available as a cream, gel, and tampon and are applied directly to your skin. The drugs contain substances such as salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and resorcinol. These kill bacteria, dry up excess oil, and remove dead skin cells.
  • Prescription medication: If over-the-counter treatment does not improve your acne, your doctor may prescribe strong medications. Medicines containing vitamin A prevent the formation of plugs in hair follicles and promote the rapid renewal of skin cells. These drugs are applied directly to your skin and contain tretinoin, tazarotene, or adapalene.

Your doctor may also prescribe another type of topical medication that contains benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics. If you have acne or pimples along with blackheads, these types of medications are especially helpful.

  • Manual removal: Dermatologists or specially trained dermatologists use a special device called a round loop extractor to remove the plug that causes blackheads. After making a small opening in the plug, the doctor applies pressure with an extractor to remove the blockage.
  • Microdermabrasion: During microdermabrasion, a doctor or skincare professional will use a special device that has a rough surface to sand the layers of skin. Sanding the skin removes blockages from blackheads.
  • Chemical peel: Chemical peels also clear blockages and remove dead skin cells that contribute to blackheads. During the peel, a strong chemical solution is applied to the skin. Over time, the epidermis reveals sensitive skin underneath. Mild peels are available over the counter, while strong peels can be performed by dermatologists or other skin professionals.
  • Laser and light therapy: Laser and light treatments use small rays of intense light to reduce oil production or kill bacteria. Lasers and light rays reach below the surface of the skin to treat blackheads and acne without damaging the epidermis.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of dermatology

Symptoms and Treatments of Ampullary Cancer | Oncology

What is ampullary cancer?

Ampullary cancer is a malignant tumor that arises from the water blister, which is the last centimetre of the common bile duct that passes through the duodenum, the first section of the intestine. All pancreatic and bile secretions enter the duodenum through the water amygdala. A tumor that blocks the water blister interferes with the passage of pancreatic and bile secretions to the intestine. Jaundice occurs when the entry of bile into the duodenum is blocked, causing it to accumulate in the bloodstream. Jaundice, the yellowing of the skin, is one of the first symptoms commonly seen with ampullary cancer.

The diagnostic tests used for ampullary cancer are similar to those for pancreatic cancer; Endoscopy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is often used to make a diagnosis. Bullous cancer (AM-poo-la-ree) is rare cancer that occurs in the area of your digestive system, called a water blister. Involved in your bile duct and pancreatic duct it is like an empty water blister in your small intestine.

Ampullary cancer occurs in the liver, pancreas, and small intestine, as well as many other parts of the digestive system. As ampullary cancer progresses, it affects these other organs. Outpatient cancer treatment often involves extensive surgery to remove cancer and a large margin of healthy tissue.

Types of ampullary cancer

True bullous cancers start in the water blister. They are often mistaken for periampullary cancers. These are found near the water blister in the pancreas, bile ducts, or intestines. In general, ampullary cancers have a better survival rate than periampullary cancers.

Causes of ampullary cancer

The cause of ampullary cancer is unclear.

Cancer usually begins when cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. It contains instructions that tell the cell’s DNA what to do. The changes tell the cell to start multiplying uncontrollably and that normal cells continue to live when they die. The accumulated cells attack and destroy normal body tissue to form a tumor.

Symptoms & signs of ampullary cancer

It is yellow in colour for the skin and eyes. This is because the tumor in the water blister is blocking the bile duct. Instead of flowing into the intestines, the bile passes into the blood and the skin turns yellow.

Other symptoms of cancer:

  • Lack of appetite
  • Weightloss
  • Abdominal pain
  • Back pain
  • Skin itch
  • Upset stomach and vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Low red blood cell count (anaemia)
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
  • Light, greasy stools
  • Many of these can be due to other health problems.

Risk factors

Of the 576 autopsy cases in the elderly, Kimura et al. Historical examination of the water papilla revealed that the incidence of epithelial groups 3 and 4 in the common duct was significantly higher than that of the bile duct, the intraretinal part of the pancreatic duct. Or duodenal epithelium. They also investigated reusable samples from papilla carcinoma patients in the water and found that the common channel to the source of the carcinoma (level IV) was the most frequent.

These results suggest that the common canal is a very important site in the pathogenesis of water papilla carcinoma. Regarding the incidence of “adenoma” surrounding the water papilla carcinoma, the values ranged between 82% and 91% 27 (level IV). Therefore, the adenoma-carcinoma sequence is very important in the pathogenesis of water papilla carcinoma. Furthermore, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a risk factor for water blister adenoma.


Jaundice is the most common symptom of this cancer and often leads people to seek a healthcare provider. Your provider will ask about your medical history, symptoms, risk factors, and family history of the disease. He or she will do a physical exam.

one or more of these tests:

  • Blood and urine tests: They are used for anaemia, bilirubin levels, and other changes that are signs of this cancer.
  • Imaging tests: These can be used to see the tumor inside the water blister. It can be ultrasound or CT scans or MRIs.
  • Endoscopy: Doctors can use an endoscope to view the blister. The endoscope is a long, thin tube. In the end, there is a small video camera. It is threaded from the mouth, through the esophagus and stomach, and from the duodenum to the bleb. It can also be used to collect small tissue cells (samples) for cancer cells.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This test is useful to see if the pancreatic and bile ducts are blocked.

It is difficult to differentiate between pancreatic cancer and ampullary cancer. Tiny pieces of tissue are removed and examined for cancer cells.

After an outpatient cancer diagnosis, you will need more tests. These can help your healthcare provider learn more about cancer. These can help determine the stage of cancer. Stage of how far and how far cancer has spread (metastasized) in your body. This is one of the most important things to know when deciding how to treat cancer.

Once your cancer has been shown, your healthcare provider will talk with you about the stage of your treatment. Ask your healthcare provider to explain the stage of cancer in a way that you can understand.

Tests and procedures used to diagnose ampullary cancer:

  • Crossing a thin, comfortable area from your throat (endoscopy): Endoscopy is the process of examining your digestive system with a long, thin tube (endoscope) with a small camera. The endoscope will see a blister of water down your throat, through your stomach, and into your small intestine.
  • Special surgical instruments can be sent through the endoscope to collect a sample of the suspicious tissue. Endoscopy can also be used to create images. For example, endoscopic ultrasound can help take pictures of cancer outpatient.
  • Doctors can stain your bile duct endoscopically in a procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: The colour shows up on x-rays and shows blockages in your bile duct or pancreatic duct.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests can help your doctor better understand your cancer and whether it has spread beyond the water blister. Imaging tests may include endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and computed tomography.
  • Cancer cell tests in the laboratory: The sample of cancer cells removed during endoscopy or surgery can be tested in the laboratory for symptoms that can guide treatment and prognosis.

Ampullary cancer treatment

Treatment options for bladder cancer may include:

  • Surgery to remove the pancreas and small intestine: The whiplash procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy) involves the removal of the head of the pancreas, as well as part of the small intestine (duodenum), gallbladder, and bile duct.

The Whipple procedure can be performed through a large incision in the abdomen or at least an invasive surgery, which uses several small incisions.

  • Minimally invasive surgery: For very small ampullary cancers and early tumors, cancer can be removed with instruments sent through an endoscope (endoscopic surgery). In some cases, this may be an option.
  • Combined with chemotherapy and radiation: Chemotherapy involves the administration of drugs that kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy uses energy rays, such as x-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. Used together, these treatments are most effective for ampullary cancers.

Combined chemotherapy and radiation can be used before surgery to increase the chances of completely removing cancer during the operation. Combination therapy can also be used after surgery to kill any cancer cells.

  • Chemotherapy only: Sometimes chemotherapy is used after surgery to kill cancer cells. In those with advanced ampullary cancer, chemotherapy can be used alone to slow the growth of cancer.
  • Treatment to reduce pain and discomfort: If other treatments are not possible or do not help, your doctor may recommend treatments that are focused on making you feel more comfortable. Surgery may be needed to place a small wire mesh tube (stent) into the bile ducts to drain the fluid that causes the skin and eyes to turn yellow.