Treatment Options of Rectal Cancer | Oncology

What is rectal cancer?

Cancer of the rectum (rectal cancer) and colon (colon cancer) is often called “colorectal cancer.” The rectum is the last few inches of the large intestine. It begins at the end of the last section of your colon and ends when it reaches the small, narrow path that leads to the anus.

Although rectal and colon cancers are similar in many ways, their treatments are very different. This is because the rectum is in a confined space and cannot be separated from other organs and structures. Surgery may be done to remove the narrow-space rectal cancer complex.

In the past, long-term survival was rare for people with colorectal cancer, even after long-term treatment. Thanks to advances in treatment over the past few decades, colorectal cancer survival rates have vastly improved.

Types of rectal cancer

Most people with colorectal cancer have a type called adenocarcinoma. There are also other types of rare tumors. These other types of rectal cancer can be treated differently from adenocarcinoma. The section of this guide on the diagnosis and treatment of this cancer is primarily concerned with adenocarcinoma.

Learn more about the types:

  1. Adenocarcinoma: It is a cancer of the cells that line the inner surface of the rectum.
  2. Carcinoid tumors: Carcinoid tumors begin in the hormone-producing cells of the intestine.
  3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a type of soft tissue sarcoma that is found anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract, but it is very rare in the rectum. These tumors can also be other types of sarcoma that begin in the blood vessels or connective tissue of the colon.
  4. Lymphoma: Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system. It usually begins in the lymph nodes, but begins in the rectum.
  5. Hereditary rectal cancer: 5 to 10 per cent of people develop colorectal cancer because, specific mutations in genes are passed down from parent to child, known as inheritance. MSK experts can provide you with a genetic test to find out if your genes have a genetic mutation that increases your risk of cancer. Having this test assesses your personal risk. Learn more about genetic testing for colorectal cancer and the inherited conditions that cause the disease.

Causes of rectal cancer

There are an estimated 44,180 new cases of colorectal cancer each year in the United States. It occurs more often in men than in women. Colon cancers are often together and have the same risk factors. The average age of diagnosis is 66 years and the risk increases with age.

People with a personal or family history of colorectal cancer or polyps are more likely to have inherited colorectal cancer syndromes (that is, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or ulcerative colitis.

Screening may be necessary) earlier than the general population A person with a first-degree relative (parents, siblings, or children) with colon cancer is 2 to 3 times more likely to develop cancer, but this does not mean that people without a family history are at risk 80% of new cases of colorectal cancer Many are diagnosed in people who are not identified as “high risk.”

Colorectal cancer case studies have found that certain lifestyle factors increase a person’s risk. These factors are:

  • A diet is rich in fat and red meat.
  • A diet low in fruits and vegetables.
  • High caloric intake.
  • Less physical activity.
  • Ob arrears.
  • Also, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption influence the development of colorectal cancer.

Although all of these factors are avoided, some people still develop colon cancer. With screening and early detection, these patients can be cured in most cases. 

Symptoms & signs of rectal cancer

Signs and Symptoms may include:

  • A change in bowel habits such as diarrhoea, constipation, or increased bowel movements
  • Dark maroon or bright red blood in the stool
  • Narrow stool
  • The feeling that your bowel is not empty
  • Abdominal pain
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness or fatigue

Risk factors

  • Years
  • Most cancers occur after age 50 (except for family history or hereditary cause of the disease). However, in recent years, rates of colorectal cancer among people in their 20s and 30s have been on the rise.
  • Learn more about colorectal cancer before age 50.
  • Family history of Lynch syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis
  • Some inherited disorders can dramatically increase the risk of colorectal cancer. These include Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis. Learn more about the risk of colorectal cancer and these and other inherited conditions that affect our genetic testing services.
  • Cancer history
  • If you already have colon cancer, you are at risk of developing it again.
  • History of inflammatory bowel disease
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colitis, increase the risk of this colon cancer.
  • Family history of cancer

You are at risk for colorectal cancer:

  • A close family member, such as parents or siblings, was diagnosed with colorectal cancer 50 years ago.
  • Many blood relatives have cancer.
  • There is a familiar pattern to some other cancers, including endometrial, ovarian, gastric, urinary tract, brain, and pancreas cancers.


The colorectal cancer screening test can detect rectal cancer. Or suspect based on your symptoms. Tests and procedures used to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Using an endoscope to examine the inside of your colon and rectum (colonoscopy): A colonoscopy uses a long, flexible tube (colonoscope) connected to a video camera and monitor to view your colon and rectum. If cancer is found in your rectum, your doctor may recommend examining your colon for additional suspicious areas.
  • Removing a sample of tissue for examination (biopsy): If suspicious areas are found, your doctor can send tissue samples (biopsies) for analysis and surgical instruments through a colonoscopy to remove the polyps.
  • The tissue samples are sent to the laboratory for analysis by doctors who specialize in analyzing blood and body tissues (pathologists): The tests can determine if the cells are cancerous if they are aggressive, and which genes are abnormal in the cancer cells. Your doctor will use this information to help her understand your diagnosis and determine your treatment options.

Rectal cancer treatment

When possible, surgery is used to kill cancer cells. Other treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, may be used to kill cancer cells that remain after surgery and reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

your doctor may recommend a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy as initial treatment. These combination therapies can shrink cancer and make it easier to remove during surgery.


Which operation is best for you depends on your specific condition, such as the location and stage of your cancer, how aggressive the cancer cells are, your general health, and your preferences.

Operations used to treat rectal cancer

Removal of very small cancers from inside the rectum:

Most small bowel cancers can be removed with a colonoscopy or other special scope inserted through the anus (transanal local excision). Surgical instruments can be sent through the endoscope to cut through cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it.

This procedure may be an option if your cancer is small and unlikely to spread to nearby lymph nodes. If a lab test finds that your cancer cells are aggressive or may be spreading to the lymph nodes, your doctor may recommend additional surgery.

Total or partial removal of the rectum:

Large rectal cancers that are too far from the anal canal can be removed in one or the entire rectal procedure (less anterior dissection). Nearby lymph nodes and tissues are also removed. This procedure protects the anus so that waste leaves the body normally.

The way this procedure is done depends on the location of cancer. If cancer affects the upper part of the rectum, that part of the rectum is removed and the colon is then attached to the rest of the rectum (colorectal anastomosis). If the cancer is in the lower rectum, the entire rectum is removed. The colon then forms like a pouch and is attached to the anus (coloanal anastomosis).

Removal of the rectum and anus:

For rectal cancers near the anus, it is not possible to completely remove cancer without damaging the muscles that control bowel movements.

The surgeon creates an opening in the abdomen and fixes the rest of the colon (colostomy). Waste leaves your body through the opening and collects in a bag that is attached to your abdomen.


Stages and Treatments of Hidradenitis Suppurativa | Dermatology

What is hidradenitis suppurativa?

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic skin disease. It causes painful, boil-like bumps that form under the skin. It often affects the areas where the skin rubs together, such as the armpits, groin, buttocks and breasts. The bumps become inflamed and painful. They often open and cause lumps that drain fluid and pus. As the bumps heal, they can cause skin scarring.

This often leads to the trapping of sweat and bacteria in the surrounding tissue, causing inflammation and infection. HS is very painful and debilitating, but it is rarely fatal; Bacterial infection in a person with a weakened immune system occurs only when it leads to excessive systemic infection.

Alternate name

  • Acne Inversa

Who gets hidradenitis suppurativa?

Hidradenitis suppurativa affects between 1 to 4 per cent of people in the US. It is more common in females than in males. Hidradenitis suppurative usually appears in adolescents, from puberty (approximately 11 years) to 40 years. It is also more common in African Americans, smokers, and people who are overweight or obese.

Causes of hidradenitis suppurativa

HS is caused by plugging the opening of the sweat gland (apocrine duct) in the hair follicles. There may also be a bacterial infection. The causes include:

  • Acne
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Dissecting cellulitis (severe patchy hair loss on the scalp)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (some, like Crohn’s, have skin symptoms that mimic hidradenitis suppurativa)
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (a hormonal disorder in women)
  • High body mass index (being overweight)

Risk factors for hidradenitis suppurativa

Risk factors that may increase your chances of developing HS include:

  • Being a woman
  • Taking certain medications
  • Having overweight or obesity
  • Having a family history of HS
  • Being between the ages of 20 and 39
  • Having severe acne, arthritis, Crohn’s disease, IBD, metabolic syndrome, or diabetes
  • Being a current or past smoker
  • Being of African descent
  • Having a lower socioeconomic status

If you have HS, it is important to get tested for other conditions:

  • Diabetes
  • Depression
  • Skin cancer

You may be at higher risk for these.

Symptoms of hidradenitis suppurativa

People with hidradenitis suppurative may first develop small bumps, sores, or boils on the skin. Unlike normal acne, these sores are often recurrent, affect both sides of the body, and develop in areas where the skin experiences folds or friction. These areas include the:

  • Groin
  • Underarms
  • Upper thighs
  • Breasts
  • Buttocks
  • Folds under the stomach

Although rare, some studies have found HS near the ear or around the belly button. There have also been some cases where HS has appeared on the face, neck, or back.

Women have breakouts on the genitals and upper thighs. Men have HS in the genitals and around the anus. For some, the lesions develop in the same place each time, but for others, they appear elsewhere. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a lifelong condition.

Diagnosis of hidradenitis suppurativa

Your doctor will examine your skin and make a diagnosis based on where the bumps and bags are and how often you have them.

They can also ask questions like you:

  • How long ago did your symptoms start?
  • Are they painful?
  • Have you had these symptoms before?
  • Does anyone close relative have this problem?

You should not have tests unless your doctor needs to rule out other types of infections. Then they take a sample of the pus and send it to the lab for analysis.


HS is divided into three stages, called Hurley stages based on their severity.

  • Hurley stage I: Stage I HS involves the formation of a sinus tract (narrow openings under the skin) or an isolated lesion or tumour without scars.
  • Hurley stage II: More than one bump but little tunnelling
  • Hurley stage III: Stage III HS involves multiple lesions with sinus tract structures, scars, and sometimes foul-smelling pus in one area of the body.

Treatment for hidradenitis suppurativa

There are several treatment options for hidradenitis suppurativa, including prescription drugs and surgery for severe cases. Therapies can help reduce or eliminate existing flare-ups, prevent new flare-ups, and eliminate scars and fistulas.


  • Antibiotics: These medications can reduce inflammation, fight infection, keep HS from getting worse, and stop new flare-ups.
  • Biologics: These drugs work by suppressing the immune system. This is an injection that you give yourself. Other biology requires infusion in a hospital or clinic. Some patients have been seen clearing up their HS for a long time with biologics.
  • Corticosteroids: Your dermatologist may inject corticosteroids directly into the painful cyst or prescribe corticosteroid tablets. They both reduce inflammation, which can help eliminate HS and prevent new flare-ups.
  • Hormones: Some women with HS relieve pain and symptoms by taking birth control pills, a medicine called spironolactone, or another hormone-regulating medicine. These medications reduce pain and allow fluid to drain out of the flare.


Hidradenitis suppurativa surgery is performed under general anaesthesia. You will be sleepy and comfortable throughout the entire surgical procedure. Surgical removal of the affected areas (excision) and, most often, covering this area with a flap (taking loose skin from another area) or a skin graft. Those with an active infection or tumour should receive treatment to resolve the active infection before definitive surgical treatment.


Untreated or severe HS can have complications over time, including:

  • A general feeling of being unwell and tired (malaise).
  • Depression
  • Long-term (chronic) infection leading to problems such as anaemia, kidney problems, and low levels of protein in the blood.
  • Joint pains and inflammation (arthropathy)
  • Skin cancer: It is a very rare but very serious chronic hidradenitis suppurative.
  • Fistula formation: A fistula forms (which is very rare) when channels, called the sinus tract, tunnel to other parts of the body, such as the intestines or bladder.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of dermatology

Causes and Treatments of Lung Cancers | Oncology

What are lung cancers?

Lung cancer, like all types of cancer, results from a defect in the body’s basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances over cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed.

Disruption of this system of checking and balancing on cell growth makes results in uncontrolled cell division and proliferation that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor.

Tumors can be benign or malignant; When we talk about “cancer”, we mean malignant tumors. Medical professionals can usually remove benign tumor cells/mass, and then these tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tumors, on the other hand, often grow aggressively locally where they start, but tumor cells can also enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system and then spread to other sites in the body. This process of spread is called metastasis; areas of tumor growth at these distant sites are called metastases.

Since lung cancer tends to spread or metastasize very soon after it forms, it is a very life-threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While lung cancer can spread to any organ inside the human body, certain locations, particularly the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bones, are the common sites for lung cancer metastasis in the human body.

The lung is also a very common site of malignant tumor metastasis in other parts of the body. The same types of cells as the original (primary) tumor form tumor metastases. For example, if prostate cancer spreads through the bloodstream to the lungs, it is metastatic prostate cancer in the lung and it is not lung cancers.

The main function of the lungs is to exchange gases between the air we breathe and the blood. Through the lung, carbon dioxide is removed from the body’s bloodstream and oxygen enters the bloodstream. The right lung has three lobes, while the left lung has two lobes and a small structure called a lingula that is the equivalent of the middle lobe on the right.

The main airways that enter the lungs are the bronchi, which arises from the trachea, which is located outside the lungs. The bronchi branch into progressively smaller airways called bronchioles that end in small sacs known as alveoli where gas exchange occurs. A thin layer of tissue called the pleura covers the lungs and chest wall.

Lung cancers can arise in any part of the lung, but between 90% and 95% of lung cancers arise from epithelial cells, the cells that line the largest and smallest airways (bronchi and bronchioles); for this reason, lung cancers are also known as bronchogenic cancers of bronchogenic carcinomas. (Carcinoma is another term for cancer). Cancers can also arise from the pleura (called mesotheliomas) or rarely from the supporting tissues within the lungs, for example, blood vessels.

Alternate name

Lung cancers, also known as lung carcinoma

Types of lung cancers

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

About 80% to 85% of lung cancers are NSCLC which is a 1st type as declared previously. The major subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. These subtypes, which are starting from different types of lung cells, are grouped as NSCLC because their treatment/cure and prognosis (outlook) are often similar.


Adenocarcinomas start in cells that would normally secrete substances like mucus. This type of lung cancer cases are occurring mainly in current or former smokers, but it’s also one of the most common types of lung cancers seen in non-smokers nowadays. It is more common in women than in men and is more likely to occur in younger people than other types of lung cancer.

Adenocarcinoma is usually found in the outer parts of the lung and is more likely to be detected before it has spread. People with a type of adenocarcinoma called adenocarcinoma in situ (formerly called bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) tend to have a better prognosis than those with other types of lung cancer.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas start in squamous cells, which are flat cells that line the inside of the airways of the lungs. They are often related to a history of smoking and tend to be found in the central part of the lungs, near the main airway (bronchi).

Large cell carcinoma (undifferentiated)

Large cell carcinoma can appear anywhere in the lung. It tends to grow and spread quickly, which can make it difficult to treat. A subtype of this large cell carcinoma is known as the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, which is fast-growing cancer that is very similar to small cell lung cancer.

Other subtypes

Some other subtypes of NSCLC, such as adenosquamous carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma, are much less common.

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

About 10% to 15% of all lung cancers are SCLC and it is often called oat cell cancer.

This lung cancer type tends to grow and spread faster than NSCLC. About 70% of people with SCLC will have cancer that has already spread by the time it is diagnosed. Since this cancer grows rapidly, it tends to respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, It has been seen for most people that cancer will return at some point.

What causes lung cancers?

Smoking causes most lung cancers, both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer also occurs in people who never smoked and who never had long-term exposure to secondhand smoke. In these cases, there may not be a clear cause of lung cancer.

How smoking causes lung cancer:

Doctors believe that smoking causes lung cancer by damaging the cells that line the lungs. When you breathe in cigarette smoke, which is full of carcinogens (carcinogens), changes in lung tissue begin almost immediately.

At first, your body can repair this damage. But with each repeated exposure, the normal cells that line your lungs become more and more damaged. Over time, the damage makes causes cells to act abnormally, and eventually, cancer can develop.

Risk factors

Several factors can increase your risk of lung cancer. Some risk factors can be controlled, for example, by quitting smoking. And other factors can’t be controlled, like your family history.

Risk factors for lung cancer include:

  • Smoke: Your risk of lung cancer depends on increases in the number of cigarettes you smoke each day and the total number of years you have smoked. Quitting smoking at any age can significantly reduce your risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke: Even if you don’t smoke, your risk of lung cancer increases if you are exposed to secondhand smoke.
  • Previous radiation therapy: If you have had radiation therapy to the chest for another type of cancer, you may have an increased risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Exposure to radon gas: Radon is produced by the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rocks, and water, which eventually becomes part of the air you breathe. Dangerous levels of radon can build up in any building, including houses.
  • Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens: Exposure in the workplace to asbestos and other substances that are known to cause cancer, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel, can increase the percentage of your risk of developing lung cancer, especially if you are a smoker.
  • Family history of lung cancer: People with a parent, sibling, or child with lung cancer are at increased risk for the disease.

Lung cancers symptoms

In people with lung cancer, symptoms don’t always occur until the condition has reached a later stage. However, some people may notice symptoms often, which they may think are related to a little serious acute illness.

Examples of these symptoms include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Changes in a person’s voice, such as hoarseness
  • Frequent chest infections in the body, such as bronchitis or pneumonia
  • A persistent cough that may start to get worse
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Unexplained headaches
  • Weightloss
  • Wheezing

A person can also experience more serious symptoms associated with lung cancer. These symptoms included severe chest or bone pain or coughing up blood.

Lung cancers diagnosis

After a physical exam, your doctor will tell you how to prepare for specific tests, such as:

  • Imaging tests: An abnormal mass can be seen on X-rays, MRIs, CT scans, and PET scans. These scans make help to produce more detail and find smaller lesions.
  • Sputum cytology: If you cough up phlegm, microscopic examination can determine if cancer cells are present.

A biopsy can determine if the tumor cells are cancerous. A tissue sample can be obtained by:

  • Bronchoscopy: While under sedation, a lighted tube is passed down the throat into the lungs, allowing for a more detailed examination.
  • Mediastinoscopy: The doctor cuts the base of the neck in the human body. A lighted instrument is inserted and surgical tools are used to sample the lymph nodes. It is usually done in a hospital under general anaesthesia.
  • Needle: Using imaging tests as a guide, a needle is inserted through the chest wall and into suspicious lung tissue. A needle biopsy can also be used to examine lymph nodes.

The tissue samples are sent to a pathologist for analysis. If the result is positive for cancer, additional tests, such as a bone scan, can help find out if cancer has spread and helped with staging.

For this test, you will be injected with a radioactive chemical. Abnormal areas of the bone will be highlighted in the images. MRI, CT, and PET are also used for staging.

Lung cancers treatment options

It is generally a good idea to seek a second opinion before starting treatment. Your doctor can help you make that happen. If you are diagnosed with lung cancers, your care will likely be managed by a team of doctors that may include:

  • A surgeon who has specialization in the chest and lungs (thoracic surgeon)
  • A lung specialist (pulmonologist)
  • A medical oncologist
  • A radiation oncologist

Review all of your treatment options before making a decision. Your doctors will coordinate care and keep each other informed. Treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies from person to person. Much depends on the specific details of your health.

  • Stage 1 NSCLC: Surgery to remove part of the lung may be all you need. Chemotherapy may also be recommended, especially if you have a high risk of recurrence.
  • Stage 2 NSCLC: You may need surgery to remove part or all of your lungs. Chemotherapy is generally recommended.
  • Stage 3 NSCLC:  At this stage, you may require a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy.
  • Stage 4 NSCLC is particularly difficult to cure. Options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

Options for small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) also include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In most cases, cancer will become too advanced for surgery. Clinical trials provide access to promising new treatments. Tell your doctor if you are ready for a clinical trial.

Some people with advanced lung cancers choose not to continue treatment. You can choose palliative care treatments, which are mainly focused on treating the symptoms of cancer rather than cancer itself.


There is no sure way to prevent lung cancers, but you can lower your risk by:

  • Do not smoke: If you’ve never smoked, don’t start. Talk to your children about not smoking so they can understand how to avoid this important risk factor for lung cancer. Start conversations about the dangers of smoking with your kids early so they know how to react to peer pressure.
  • Stop smoking: Stop smoking now. Quitting smoking reduces your risk of lung cancer, even if you have smoked for years. Talk to your doctor about quit strategies and aids that can help you quit. Some options include nicotine replacement products, such as medications, and support groups.
  • Avoid secondhand smoke: If you live or work with a smoker, encourage them to quit. At the very least, ask him to smoke outside. Avoid areas where people smoke, like bars and restaurants, and look for smoke-free options.
  • Check your home for radon: Monitor radon levels in your home, especially if you live in an area where radon is known to be a problem. High radon levels can be remedied to make your home safer than others. For information on radon testing, contact your local public health department or a local chapter of the American Lung Association.
  • Avoid carcinogens at work: Take more precautions to protect yourself from exposure to toxic chemicals at work. Follow your employer’s precautions. For example, if you are given a mask to protect yourself, always wear it. Ask your doctor what else you can do to protect yourself at work. Your risk of lung damage from carcinogens in the workplace increases if you smoke.
  • Eat a healthy and rich diet in fruits and vegetables: Choose a good healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables. Food sources of vitamins and nutrients are the best. Avoid taking large doses of vitamins in pill form, as they can be harmful. For example, researchers who hoped to reduce the risk of lung cancer in heavy smokers gave beta-carotene supplements. The results showed that the supplements actually increased the risk of cancer in smokers.
  • Exercise most days of the week: If you don’t exercise regularly, start slowly. Try to exercise most days of the week.


Lung cancers can cause complications, such as:

  • Difficulty breathing: People with lung cancers may experience shortness of breath if cancer grows and blocks the main airways. Lung cancer can also cause fluid to collect around the lungs, making it difficult for the affected lung to fully expand when inhaled.
  • Coughing up blood: Lung cancers can cause bleeding in the airways, which can cause you to cough up blood (hemoptysis). Sometimes the bleeding can become severe. Treatments are available to control bleeding.
  • Advanced lung cancers start spreads to the lining of a lung or to another area of ​​the body, such as inside a bone, which makes pain. Tell your doctor if you experience any type of pain, as there are many treatments available to control pain.
  • Fluid in the chest (pleural effusion): Lung cancers can cause fluid to build up in the space around the affected lung in the chest cavity (pleural space).

Fluid buildup in the chest can cause shortness of breath. Treatments are available to drain fluid from the chest and reduce the risk of recurrent pleural effusion.

  • Cancer starts to spread to other parts of the body (metastasis): Lung cancers often spread (metastasizes) to other parts of the body, such as the brain and bones.

Cancer that spreads can cause pain, nausea, headaches, or other signs and symptoms, depending on the organ affected. Once lung cancers have spread beyond the lungs, it is generally not curable. Treatments are available to decrease signs and symptoms and help you live longer.


Symptoms and Treatments of Keratosis Pilaris | Dermatology

What is keratosis pilaris?

Keratosis pilaris is a common, harmless skin condition that causes rough, dry patches and small bumps, usually on the arms, thighs, cheeks, or buttocks. The bumps do not generally hurt or itch.

Keratosis pilaris is often considered a different type of normal skin. It cannot be cured or prevented. But you can treat it with the emollients and creams prescribed to help improve the appearance of the skin. The condition usually resolves by the age of 30.

What are the symptoms of keratosis pilaris?

One of the most prominent symptoms of keratosis pilaris is its appearance. The bumps on the skin resemble goosebumps or the skin of a swollen chicken. Consequently, it is known as “chicken skin”.

The bumps can appear anywhere on the skin where hair follicles are located, so they will never appear on the soles of your feet or the palms of your hands. Keratosis pilaris is most commonly found in the arms and thighs. Plus, it can extend to the forearms and legs.

Other associated symptoms include:

  • Mild redness or redness around the bumps
  • Skin irritation and itching
  • Dry skin
  • Sandpaper-like bumps
  • Bumps that can appear in different colours depending on skin colour (flesh-coloured, white, red, pink, brown, or black)

What causes keratosis pilaris?

Keratosis pilaris results from the buildup of keratin, which is the protein that protects the skin from infections and other harmful things. The buildup forms a plug that prevents hair follicles from opening, but doctors don’t know what triggers the buildup.

If you have dry skin, you are more likely to develop keratosis pilaris. It is usually worse in the winter months when the humidity is lower in the air, then it may wane in the summer. It often affects people with certain skin conditions, including eczema (also called atopic dermatitis).

How do dermatologists treat keratosis pilaris?

This skin condition is harmless, so there is no need to treat it.

If itching, dryness, or the appearance of your skin bothers you, treatment can help. A dermatologist can create a treatment plan that addresses your concerns. Below is a description of what a treatment plan might include:

Relieve the itch and dryness: A creamy moisturizer can soothe itching and dryness. Most saturating creams used to treat keratosis pilaris contain one of the accompanying fixings:

  • Urea
  • Lactic acid

Diminish the bumpy appearance: To reduce bumps and improve the texture of your skin, dermatologists often recommend exfoliation (removing dead skin cells from the surface of the skin). Your dermatologist may recommend gently removing dead skin using a loofah or an exfoliating kit at home.

Your dermatologist may also prescribe medication that removes dead skin cells. The medicine that can help often contains one of the following ingredients:

  • Alpha hydroxy acid
  • Glycolic acid
  • Lactic acid
  • A retinoid (adapalene, retinol, tazarotene, tretinoin)
  • Salicylic acid
  • Urea

The medicine you use for your peeling may also contain a moisturizer that can help with itching and dryness. To treat the bumps, some patients may need areas of keratoderma. This medicine softens the bumps and reduces redness.

Lasers may work when moisturizer and medicine fail: Laser or light therapy can be used to treat keratosis pilaris. Your dermatologist may recommend one type of laser to reduce swelling and redness. Another type of laser may improve the texture of your skin and reduce discolouration, including brown spots that may appear when the bumps are removed.

To get the best results from a laser treatment, your dermatologist may add some micro-peeling sessions to your treatment plan.

About the maintenance plan

Treatment cannot cure keratosis pilaris, so you will need to treat your skin to control the bumps. Your maintenance plan might be as simple as using the medication twice a week instead of every day. Another option might be to switch to an over-the-counter moisturizing cream.

What is the result for individuals with keratosis pilaris?

For many people, keratosis pilaris will go away over time, even if you choose not to treat it. Clearing tends to happen gradually over many years. There is no way to tell who will clearly see keratosis pilaris.

Keratosis pilaris home remedies

If you do not like the look of your keratosis pilaris, there are some techniques you can try at home. Although the condition cannot be cured, self-care treatments can help reduce bumps, itching, and irritation.

  • Take warm baths: Taking short, warm baths can help open and loosen pores. Rub your skin with a stiff brush to remove the bumps. Limiting the time you spend in the shower is important, as long washing periods can remove natural oils from the body.
  • Daily exfoliation can help improve the appearance of the skin. Dermatologists recommend gently removing dead skin with a loofah or a pumice stone, which you can buy online.
  • Apply hydrating lotion: Preparations containing alpha hydroxy acid (AHAs) such as lactic acids can moisturize dry skin and encourage cell regeneration. Some dermatologists recommend products such as Eucerin Professional Repair and AmLactin, which you can buy online. Glycerin, found in most beauty stores, can soften the bumps, while rose water can soothe dermatitis.
  • Avoid tight clothes: Wearing tight clothing can create friction that may irritate the skin.
  • Use humidifiers: Humidifiers add moisture to the air in the room, which keeps the skin moist and prevents itchy irritation. Buy air humidifiers online here.


Keratosis pilaris is a clinical diagnosis.

It reveals the biopsy:

  • Epidermalhyperkeratosis
  • Plugged hair follicles
  • Hypergranulosis
  • Mild superficial perivascular lymphocytic inflammation.


Complications are rare because they are primarily a cosmetic skin condition. Be that as it may, transitory skin staining called post-fiery hypopigmentation (lighter than ordinary skin shading) or hyperpigmentation may happen after the red, aggravated knocks improve or after an impermanent flare. Permanent scarring may rarely occur from picking, aggressive treatments, or other infections.


Types and Treatments of Breast Cancer | Oncology

What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is cancer that forms inside the cells of the breast.

After skin disease, breast cancer is found as the most common disease diagnosed in women in the United States. This can occur in both men and women, but it is much more common in women.

Substantial support for breast cancer awareness and research funding has helped create advancements in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Now the breast cancer survival rates have increased and the number of deaths associated with this disease is steadily decreasing, largely due to factors such as earlier detection of this disease, a new approach for treating this disease, and a better understanding of the disease.

Types of breast cancer

There are several types of breast cancer and they fall into two main categories: “invasive” and “non-invasive” or in situ. Although invasive cancer has spread from the mammary ducts or glands to other parts of the breast, non-invasive cancer has not spread from the original tissue.

These two categories are used to describe the most common types of breast cancer, including:

  • Ductal carcinoma in situ: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive condition. With DCIS, the disease cells are confined to the ducts in the breast and have not invaded the surrounding breast tissue.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ: Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a disease that grows in the milk-producing glands of the breast. Like DCIS, the cancer cells have not invaded the surrounding tissue.
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is one of the most common types of breast cancer. This type of disease begins in the breast milk ducts and then invades nearby tissues in the breast. Once breast cancer has spread to tissue outside of the milk ducts, it can begin to spread to other nearby organs and tissues.
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) first develops in the lobules of the breast and has invaded nearby tissue.

Other less common types of breast cancer include:

  • Paget’s disease of the nipple: This type of disease in the breast begins in the ducts of the nipple, but as it grows, it begins to affect the skin and areola of the nipple.
  • Phyllodes tumor: This is a very rare type of disease in the breast which grows in the connective tissue of the breast. Most of these tumors in the breast are benign, but some are cancerous.

This is a disease that grows in the blood or lymphatic vessels of the breast.

Causes of breast cancer

Doctors know that breast cancer occurs when some cells in the breast begin to grow abnormally. These cells divide faster than healthy cells and continue to accumulate, forming a lump or mass. Cells can spread (metastasize) through the breast to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

Breast cancer most usually begins with cells in the milk-producing ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma). This disease can also start in the glandular tissue called lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma) or other cells or tissue within the breast.

Researchers have identified hormonal, lifestyle, and environmental factors that can increase your risk of breast cancer. But it is not clear why some people who do not have risk factors develop cancer, while other people with risk factors never do. This disease is likely caused by a complex interplay of your genetic makeup and your environment.

Risk factors

A risk factor for breast cancer is anything that increases your chances of having this disease. But having one or even more risk factors for this disease does not necessarily mean that you will develop breast cancer. Most of the women who develop this disease have no known risk factors other than simply being women.

Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include:

  • To be a woman: Women are much more likely than men to develop breast cancer.
  • Advanced age: Your risk of breast cancer increases with age.
  • Personal history of breast conditions: If you had a breast biopsy that found lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or atypical breast hyperplasia, you have an increased risk of breast cancer.
  • Personal history: If you have had breast cancer in one breast, you have a higher risk of developing cancer in the other breast.
  • Family history: If your mother, sister, or daughter was diagnosed with breast cancer, especially at a young age, your risk of breast cancer increases. Still, most people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of the disease.
  • Inherited genes that increase the risk of cancer: Certain genetic mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parent to child. The best known genetic mutations are known as BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast and other cancers, but they do not make disease inevitable.
  • Radiation exposure: If you received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer increases.
  • Obesity increases the risk.
  • Starting your period at an earlier age: Starting your period before age 12 increases your risk of breast cancer.
  • The onset of menopause at a later age: If you started menopause at a later age, you are more likely to develop breast cancer.
  • Have your first child at an older age: Women who give birth to their first child after the age of 30 may have an increased risk of breast cancer mostly.
  • Never have been pregnant: Women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk than women who have had one or more pregnancies.
  • Postmenopausal hormone therapy: Women who take hormone therapy drugs that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have an increased risk of breast cancer. The risk of this disease decreases when women stop taking these drugs.
  • Drinking alcohol: Drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancer.

Symptoms of breast cancer

  • A lump or thickening in the breasts that feels different from the surrounding tissue
  • Change in the breast size, breast shape, or appearance of a breast
  • Changes in the skin over the breast, such as dimples
  • A newly inverted nipple
  • Scaling, crusting, or peeling of the pigmented area of skin around the nipple (areola) or the skin of the breast
  • Redness or pitting of the skin on the chest, like the skin of an orange.

Diagnosis of breast cancer

To determine if your symptoms are caused by or a benign breast condition, your doctor will perform a complete physical exam in addition to a breast exam. They may also order one or more diagnostic tests to help understand what is causing your symptoms.

Tests that can help to diagnose may include:

  • Mammography: The most common way to see below the surface of your breast is with an imaging test called a mammogram. Many women age 40 and older have annual mammograms to screen for breast cancer. If your doctor suspects you may have a tumor or a suspicious site, she will also order a mammogram. If an abnormal area is seen on your mammogram, your doctor may order additional tests.
  • Ultrasound: A breast ultrasound uses sound waves to create an image of the deep tissues of the breast. An ultrasound can make help your doctor distinguish between a solid mass, such as a tumor, and a benign cyst.

Treatment of breast cancer

The stage of your breast cancer, how far it has invaded (if so), and how large the tumor has grown all play a role in determining the type of treatment you will need.

To start, your doctor will determine the size, stage, and grade of your cancer (how likely it is to grow and spread). After that, you can discuss your treatment options. Surgery treatment is the most common treatment in women. Many women receive additional treatments, such as chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation, or hormone therapy.


Several types of surgery can be used to remove breast cancer, including:

  • This procedure removes the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue, leaving the rest of the breast intact.
  • Mastectomy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes the complete breast; In a double mastectomy, both breasts are completely removed.
  • Sentinel node biopsy: This surgery removes some of the lymph nodes that receive drainage from the tumor. These lymph nodes will be examined. If they do not have cancer, you may not need additional surgery to remove more lymph nodes.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection: If the lymph nodes removed during a sentinel node biopsy contain cancer cells, your doctor may remove more lymph nodes.
  • Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: Although it can be present in only one breast, some women choose to have a contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. This type of surgery removes your healthy breast for reducing your risk of developing this disease once again.


With radiation therapy, high-powered radiation beams are used to attack and destroy cancer cells. Most radiation treatments use external beam radiation. This technique uses a large machine on the outside of the body.

Advances in cancer treatment have also allowed doctors to radiate cancer from within the body. This type of radiation treatment is called brachytherapy. To perform brachytherapy, surgeons place radioactive seeds or pellets inside the body near the site of the tumor. The seeds are staying there for a short period of time and work for destroying cancer cells.


Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that is used to kill cells. Some people can undergo chemotherapy on its own, but this type of treatment is often used in conjunction with other treatments, especially surgery.

In some cases, doctors prefer to give chemotherapy to patients before surgery. The hope is that the treatment will shrink the tumor, and then the surgery won’t have to be as invasive. Chemotherapy has many unwanted side effects, so you should discuss your concerns with your doctor before starting treatment.

Hormonal therapy

If your type of breast cancer is hormone-sensitive, your doctor may start hormone therapy. Two hormones are Estrogen and progesterone, two female hormones are there, which can stimulate the growth of tumors. Hormone therapy works by blocking the body’s production of these hormones or by blocking hormone receptors on cancer cells. This action can help to make slow and possibly stop the growth of your disease in the breast.


Certain treatments are designed to target specific abnormalities or mutations within cancer cells. For example, Herceptin (trastuzumab) can block the production of the HER2 protein in your body. HER2 helps breast cancer cells grow, so taking a drug to decrease the production of this protein can help slow disease growth.


If you notice an unusual lump or spot on your breast or have other symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor. It is most likely not breast cancer. For example, there are many other potential causes of breast lumps.

But if your problem turns out to be cancer, keep in mind that early treatment is the key. Early-stage can often be treated and cured if it is found quickly enough. The longer breast cancer is allowed to grow, the makes difficult treatment.

If you’ve already been diagnosed with breast cancer, keep in mind that disease treatments continue to improve, as do the results. So need to follow your treatment plan according to your Doctor and try to stay positive. Learn more about the outlook for the different stages of this disease.


9 out of 10, women are the first to notice a breast lump or mass. It is usually not painful, but it can cause an unusual sensation in the area where the lump is.

When a tumor grows, the size or shape of the breast can change. Also, the nipple can contract, or part of the skin to contract, causing what looks like a dimple to appear. Other symptoms may include a lump or swelling in the armpit and redness or swelling of the breast.

A breast that develops a red rash should be evaluated for breast cancer, even in the absence of a lump.

While these may be signs of this disease, they can also indicate another non-cancerous condition. In fact, about 8 out of 10 breast growths are not cancerous. However, always try to consult with a doctor to determine the exact cause of the lump.

One of the most serious complications of this disease is metastasis. This is when some cells from a tumor break off and move to other areas of the body, either through the blood or lymphatic vessels, invading tissue at new and possibly distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, they most commonly reach the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bones, brain, and skin. It may take years, even after the breast tumor is diagnosed and treated, before the disease that has spread from the original tumor appears.

Once metastatic tumors are discovered, cancer has likely spread to other places as well, even if they are not detected.

Departments to consult for this condition

  • Department of oncology